In the Kingdom of the Apalaches. The 1600s brought an almost unbelievable degree of admixture and population change to the Southern Highlands. In fact, little of what demonstrably occurred has been believed. Hang onto your colonial cap because it’s going to be a bumpy ride!
With a single turn of the page we are firmly in the domain of the written word. Everything now is about admixture. Our representative for this period is C. D. Brewington of a famous Lumbee family. He wrote The Five Civilized Indian Tribes of Eastern North Carolina in 1952. Brewington was a teacher and minister and served in the Croatan churches of Sampson and Robeson counties, the Lumbee heartland. Brewington was a strong original spokesman for American Indian heritage, but he was more. He happened to be an Indian himself. The moral imperative he felt is in keeping with our policy of privileging native sources, and allowing descendants to speak with their own voices and evidence.
This discussion paper is intended to become Chapter 5: The Wotan Gene in the report on Phase III of our Cherokee DNA Studies.
All generalities are false, including this one. –Voltaire
Wotan, or Odin, sometimes Voden, Woden, Votan or Wuotan, means “furious, inspired, mad” in its Indo-European derivation. Germanic kings traced their genealogy to the hero-god in a fashion called euhemeristic much as we say we are descendants of Adam or Achilles or Brutus. It is a claim of ethnicity, and presumably there is some historical as well as genetic substantiation. Could the Cherokee Paint Clan called Ani-Wodi and conventionally taken to designate the Phoenicians really mean Those Descended from Wotan? If so, Kutans are people from the East Mediterranean (Kittim) and the Paint Clan are Germanic interlopers. The distinction, however, is blurred if you believe, like Christine Pellech and others, that the Phoenicians were originally a North European people. Please read on…
iIt is a positive fact that many ancient nations of the east, such as the Libyans, Moors, Etruscans, Phoenicians and Hindus, had heard of America or knew nearly as much of it as we did of Australia and Polynesia a hundred years ago. It is as certain that America contained anciently, as even now, a crowd of distinct nations and tribes, some of which were quite civilized, perhaps as much as the Spaniards led by Columbus. The others were more barbarous, but not entirely savage. There were but few, if any, real savages in America.
Then the white strangers, which were supposed to be visitors from heaven and who were supposed to be such on account of their white skins, as the idea and emblem of white was purity and spirituality among the Cherokees, these strangers were taken to be such, asked that they be allowed a small piece of ground upon which to camp, cook and sleep; it was charitably granted. These strangers were entertained by the Cherokee clans very charitably and food and other articles of comfort freely given to them. Then these strangers made known their desire and willingness to remain with the native Cherokee clans if they were allowed to purchase a small piece of ground upon which to camp and sleep. They made known to the tribe that they only needed a small piece of land about the size of a bull hide. This modest request was freely granted to the strangers and sold to them for a trifling consideration. The supposed heavenly strangers then cut one of the ox hides which they had brought with them into a small string which they stretched around a square enclosing several hundred square yards.
Are haplogroups correlated to different world regions? To ancient origins and migrations? Are they continent specific? Is your mitochondrial haplogroup a good indication by itself of your ethnicity? These are all large questions that must be asked in genetic genealogy.
Apes and elephants were imported into the West from India. Hunting dogs from Britain were a staple of world trade, and “Viking dogs” reached pre-Columbian Peru.
The STR method enjoys important advantages in validity over both mitochondrial analysis and autosomal SNP chip tests.
Here is our holiday treat for Elvis fans, the top fifty population matches for his profile, as would be reported in our Basic American Indian DNA Test or Cherokee DNA Test or Native American Indian DNA Fingerprint Plus.
Before American Antiquity’s Sequoyah is fully canonized as the Disney version of himself, a few objections . . . .