Native American ǀ American Indian
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. (Because many Ojibwe were formerly located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux.) They could be found in states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Additionally, a few bands of the Chippewa tribe inhabit parts of southern Canada. Together, there are approximately 150 different bands or groups of Chippewa Native Americans.
Today, Chippewa Indians are organized into communities, and each individual community resides on their own reservation in the United States or Canada. Because each tribe is individually governed by its own government, these communities have their own school systems, law enforcement officers, etc. In essence, the reservation is like a small, independent country. (from Chippewa indians). The people of this Northeast American Indian tribe are also referred to as Ojibwarich, Ojibway, and Ojibwe.
The Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, and is still widely spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language’s fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, and restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture.
The Canadian writer Basil H. Johnston (1929-2015), who published Ojibway Heritage in 1976, did more than any other person to preserve the Ojibway language, culture and spirituality.
See also Native American – Minnesota.
U.S. Chippewa Indians population data are based on blood samples obtained from 22 unrelated individuals living in the Southwestern United States in 2016.
Source publication: Native American Population Data based on the Globalfiler autosomal STR PCR Amplification Kit, Forensic Science International, 2016, 12-13.