Race and Ethnicity

American Anthropological Association. American Anthropological Association statement on “race.” Available at:American Anthropological Association. 96% of human variation between individuals lies within so-called racial groups. Only a small amount of variation exists between and among groups. (A figure of 85% versus 15% is obtained when we look just at STRs and RFLP autosomal loci.)

Brodwin, Paul. (2002) “Genetics, Identity, and the Anthropology of Essentialism” in Anthropological Quarterly 75/2: 323-330.

Disotell, Todd R. (2000). “Molecular Anthropology and Race.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 925:9-24.

Elliott, Carl and Paul Brodwin (2002). “Identity and Genetic Ancestry Tracing,” in BMJ 325(7378):1469-1471.

Frudakis, T., V Kondragunta, M Thomas, Z Gaskin, S Ginjupalli, S Gunturi, V Ponnuswamy, S Natarajan, and P Nachimuthu. (2002). A Classifier for SNP-Based Racial Inference. In Review, Journal of Forensics Sciences.

Goldstein, David B. and Joel N. Hirschhorn (2004). In genetic control of disease, does ‘race’ matter? Nature Genetics 36:1243-44. Short answer:  no.

Hall, Stuart and Paul du Gay, eds (1996). Questions of Cultural Identity. London:  Sage Publications.

Halder, I., M. Shriver, M. Thomas, J. R. Fernandez and T. Frudakis (2008). A Panel of Ancestry Informative Markers for Estimating Individual Biogeographical Ancestry and Admixture from Four Continents:  Utility and Applications. Human Mutation 29/5:648-58.

Havranek, Edward P. and Frederick A. Masoudi (2004). “What We’re Talking about When We Talk about Race.” J Am Coll Cardiol 43:436-7.

Majamaa K, Finnilä S, Turkka J & Hassinen IE (1998) Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U as a risk factor for occipital stroke in migraine. Lancet 352: 455-456.

Molnar, Stephen (2002) Human Variation: Races, Types and Ethnic Groups, 5th ed.  Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Parra, E., Marcini, A., Akey, J., Martinson, J., Batzer, M., Cooper, R., Forrester, T., Allison, D., Deka, R., Ferrell, R. and M. Shriver (1998). Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population Specific Alleles. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63:1839-1851.

Pfaff, C., Parra, E., Bonilla, C., Hiester, K., McKeigue, P., Kamboh, M., Hutchinson, R., Ferrell, R., Boerwinkle, E., and M. Shriver (2001). Population Structure in Admixed Populations: Effect of Admixture Dynamics on the Pattern of Linkage Disequilibrium. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:198-207.

Parra, E., Kittles, R., Argyropoulos, G., Pfaff, C., Hiester, K., Bonilla, C., Sylvester, N., Parrish-Gause, C., Garvey, W., Jin, L., McKeigue, P., Kamboh, M., Ferrell, R., Pollitzer, W., and M. Shriver (2001). Ancestral Proportions and Admixture Dynamics in Geographically Defined African Americans Living in South Carolina. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 114:18-29.

Romualdi, Chiara et al. (2002). “Patterns of Human Diversity, within and among Continents, Inferred from Biallelic DNA Polymorphisms.” Genomics 4:602-12. On the basis of alu insertions, there is little evidence, if any, of a clear subdivision of humans into biologically defined groups.

Serre, David and Svante Pääbo (2004). “Evidence for Gradients of Human Genetic Diversity Within and Among Continents. Genome Res. 14:1679-1685. Assumptions of genetic discontinuities supporting racial and continental divisions are false.

Shriver, M. D. & Kittles, R. A. Genetic ancestry and the search for personalized genetic histories. Nature Rev. Genet. 5, 611-618 (2004).

Zerubavel, Eviatar (2003). Time Maps:  Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.