Ice Age Europeans

Ice Age Europeans| Europe| Northern Europe | 45,000 – 12,000 BCE

Modern humans first entered Europe during the last Ice Age, which is called the Paleolithic by archeologists, between 45,000 and 38,000 years ago. These early groups hunted and foraged over large ranges due to the scarcity of food and shared the landscape with Neanderthals, an archaic species of human that had evolved independently and had already lived in Europe for hundreds of thousands of years. Characteristic of this period are Venus figurines and cave art such as Lascaux, Chauvet and Altamira in France and Spain.

While the earlier part of the Paleolithic involved humans moving in and out due to the instability of the climate, the Gravettian Period marked the first truly Pan-European culture. These people were highly skilled hunter-gatherers and focused on hunting mammoths. Not only was this animal used for meat, but also as material for the making of small buildings out of mammoth bones and skin.

A notable Upper Paleolithic or Ice Age site in Central Europe is Dolní Vestonice near Brno in the Czech Republic. It abounds with information about the technology, art, animal exploitation, site settlement patterns and human burial activities of 30,000 years ago.

Genetics
Ancient DNA samples from the Paleolithic are quite rare, though in recent years there has been a large expansion in the number of individuals successfully sequenced, with some as old as 37,000 to 42,000 years ago. The mitochondrial and Y chromosome lineages of Ice Age Europeans were remarkably uniform by site, though diverse across regions. There are many sites where all the individuals present belonged to the mitochondrial U haplogroup, which was the most common haplogroup among European hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic and still exists in Europe today, although at lower frequencies due to the genetic contribution of incoming European farmers who brought such lineages as H, T and J. Males most frequently belonged to Y chromosome haplogroup I, a well-represented lineage in European males today, thought to have originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. In general, the Ice Age saw unique patterns of diversity, with C, F and T appearing in male lineages and N and M alongside several types of U in mitochondrial lines.

Code: IAE-14

Number of genomes comprising this ancient DNA test: 26 (Anastasiy, Borg, Alberich, Esmetald, Sieglinde, Aeneas, Apep, Clio,Consus, Brigitte, DagmarProserpina, Jarek, Aries, Břetík, Estella, Kriemhild, LuděkMimeOldřichPepík, QuinSieglindeValeriyaVenusVesta)

Added: Jan. 15, 2019

Ancient DNA Hub Reference: The European Ice Age

Story ID: 20007

You may be interested in these Rare Genes from History matches:
The Lake Baikal Gene
The Shaman Gene

You may also be interested in the following Primeval DNA Test:
Stone Age Europeans






Currently available ancient peoples and cultures

Ancient Britons in Roman Britain

Britons, Romans and others buried between 100 and 300 CE in Driffield Terrace cemetery outside York, England

Read more

Ice Age Europeans

Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Early Europe

Read more

Chumash Paleo-Indians

Paleo-Indians of the Santa Barbara Channel area of the southern California coast ancestral to present-day Chumash People and Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians

Read more

Egyptian Mummies

Ancient mummified Egyptians sampled from the Abusire el-Meleq Archeological Site near Cairo

Read more

Stone Age Europeans

Mesolithic people at the end of the hunter-gatherer culture in Europe and Western Asia, introducing more permanent settlements.

Read more

Vikings in Medieval Iceland

Norse and Irish settlers in Iceland from its earliest colonization

Read more

Ancient Israelites

Farmers, herders, merchants and other Levantine people who lived in the bounds of modern-day Israel from the end of the Stone Age down to Biblical times

Read more


Coming Soon!

Upcoming Ancient
Peoples and Cultures

  • Mal'ta Boy
  • Minoans and Mycenaeans
  • Ötzi the Ice Man
  • Prehistoric Africans
  • Templar Knights and Crusaders
  • Anglo-Saxon Warriors
  • Kennewick Man
  • Amazons

Sign up for updates

* indicates required