Egyptian Mummies

Egyptian Mummies | North Africa | Egypt | 3,000 - 2 BCE

The first whole genome analyses of ancient Egyptian mummies reveal they were more closely related to other ancient people from the Levant (East Mediterranean), while modern Egyptians are now genetically closer to Sub-Saharan Africans. This picture is confirmed by cemetery and tomb excavations.

The data regarding Egyptian Mummies were compiled from excavations at the Abusire el-Meleq Archeological Site, which was used as a burial site by the ancient Egyptians from about 3250 BCE continuing into the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. The huge necropolis (city of the dead) near the ancient capital of Memphis and Pyramids of Giza may be one of the best witnesses to the complex population changes that occurred in Egyptian history. It contains both elite and commoner burials.

Ancient Egyptian Civilization spans a period of more than 3,000 years. Some people identify Ramesses (or Ramses) II of the New Kingdom as the pharaoh of Exodus. His mummy suggested a Middle Eastern (not African) type of male haplotype E-V22 (or E1b1b1a1b2), red hair, light skin and, in general, European features.
Many ancient Egyptian men clearly belonged to Y chromosomal haplogroup J and E, which are distributed throughout the Middle East and Europe today. Mitochondrial haplogroups M1 and J were found in these men. T and U lineages have also been reported. Almost no strictly African lineages (typically, L haplogroups) were identified.
The Ptolemaic individual analyzed from Abusire el-Meleq was male and belonged to Y chromosome haplogroup E1b, the main paternal lineage of North Africa. His mitochondrial lineage belonged to U, the most common haplogroup among European hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic Age. The man belonged specifically to the U6 lineage, common among early Levantine (Western Asia and East Mediterranean) populations and Berber, or North African people.

Code: EGM-8,9,10,11

Ancient DNA Hub Reference: Egypt

Story ID: 20004

Number of ancient genomes contributing to test: 3 (Seth, Nour, Anubis)

You may be interested in the following modern populations:
Egyptian Arabs, Copts and Muslims
Egyptian Berbers – Siwa (n=98)
Moroccan Berbers
Libyan (n=103)

You may be interested in these Rare Genes from History matches:
The King Tut Gene
The Akhenaten Gene
The Thuya Gene
The Egyptian Gene

You may also be interested in this other Primeval DNA test:
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