Over 3,500 years ago the most violent volcanic eruption ever witnessed by humans occurred on the Mediterranean island of Thera. This year, DNA Consultants is bringing that event to public consciousness again with its Primeval DNA test Minoans and Mycenaeans, one of twenty-four ancient genomic tests the company has been preparing for full launch.
Like all the ancient DNA tests in its lineup, Minoans and Mycenaeans compares a customer’s genomic sequences from private DNA testing to the actual genomes recovered by professional paleoarcheologists. Customers learn about their genetic similarity to real people of the past, have access to paleogeneticists’ published findings about the site, people and era in prehistory and can read about the individual biographies of skeletons, including what they ate, what lifestyle they had and their physical appearance.
A pre-launch version of Primeval DNA became available in April. The full launch is scheduled to take place on a dedicated website at primevaldna.com ton September 16. After that date, the pre-launch version for $99 on the old website will no longer be sold. Until then, customers can purchase it at the following link: https://dnaconsultants.com/product/our-tests/primeval-dna-test-data/
The main offering will be the Ancient Superheroes 10-Pack, said Donald Yates, principal investigator. Customers will also be able to order single ancient DNA tests. They may choose between uploading their raw genomic file from previous testing or order a new Primeval DNA lab kit.
Primeval DNA Tests Available in September 2019
Farmers, herders, merchants and other Levantine people who lived in the bounds of modern-day Israel from the end of the Stone Age down to Biblical times.
Sample biography: Bruriah is… one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Ancient Israelites. The woman’s skeleton was excavated at Peqi’in Cave in Israel, located at 32.97N 35.33E https://earth.app.goo.gl/ySPhWR and carbon-dated to about 4200 BCE. Her mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be T2. Bruriah was buried at Peqi’in Cave, where a large array of high-quality objects have been discovered, including chalices and bowls. Also found were elaborate human figurines, and Bruriah could have been the craftsperson to create these. One figurine was made of ivory, and had small holes drilled into its head to enable the attachment of hair.
Armenian Children of the Sun
Pre-Bronze Age Armenians who developed some of the world’s earliest wines
Sample biography: Abaven was one of two Middle Late Chalcolithic people found at Birds’ Cave. Abaven was male, but his age at death remains uncertain. During his lifetime, Abaven would have been part of the complex society living around Birds’ Cave. While living in this cave, Abaven may have drunk wine from the earliest known winery in the world. He could even have participated in producing it.
Baltic Hillfort Inhabitants
Not everyone was just waiting for the Agricultural Revolution to happen. These Bronze Age pagans happily clung to hunter-gatherer ways
Sample biography: Anita was an adult woman when she died. She is thought to have been aged around 35-42 years. Anita’s skeleton was discovered laid to rest in a wooden coffin, crafted from what is believed to be linden tree wood. However, there is no evidence of her having been buried with any funerary artefacts. Genetic analysis of her remains suggest that in life, Anita would have had dark hair and brown eyes. She probably spent her life close to where she was buried, in the verdant landscape shaped by the Daugava River in what is now central Latvia
Ancient mummified Egyptians sampled from the Abusire el-Meleq Archeological Site near Cairo
Description: The first whole genome analyses of ancient Egyptian mummies reveal they were more closely related to other ancient people from the Levant (East Mediterranean), while modern Egyptians are now genetically closer to Sub-Saharan Africans. This picture is confirmed by cemetery and tomb excavations. The data regarding Egyptian Mummies were compiled from excavations at the Abusire el-Meleq Archeological Site, which was used as a burial site by the ancient Egyptians from about 3250 BCE continuing into the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. The huge necropolis (city of the dead) near the ancient capital of Memphis and Pyramids of Giza may be one of the best witnesses to the complex population changes that occurred in Egyptian history….
Horsemen of the Neolithic Apocalypse
Corded Ware people in Central and Eastern Europe who felt the first onslaught of fierce Yamnaya invaders from the steppes around 3,000 BCE
Sample biography: Albertus is the name given to the skeletal remains of an ancient male. In the Ancient DNA Hub, Albertus is among the skeletons found in the Esperstedt story. Albertus is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Horsemen of the Neolithic Apocalypse. The man’s skeleton came from the site of Esperstedt, 25 kilometers (15 miles) southwest of the city of Halle (Salle) in present-day Germany, located at 51.42N 11.68W. The remains were carbon-dated to about 2275 BCE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be J2a2a and his Y haplogroup P1.
Iron Age Zulus
Zulu herdsmen who formed the southern branch of the Bantu Expansion in Africa, beginning 200 CE
Sample biography: Amahle is the name given to the skeletal remains of an ancient female. In the Ancient DNA Hub, Amahle is among the skeletons found in the Champagne Castle, Eland Cave, Mfongosi, and Newcastle story. Amahle is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Iron Age Zulus. The woman’s skeleton was excavated near Champagne Castle, located within Maloti-Drakensberg Park in South Africa and located at -29.02N 29.33E. The remains were carbon-dated to about 1585 CE. Her mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be L0d2a1a.
One of America’s oldest inhabitants and certainly its most mysterious
Biography: Kennewick Man is the name given to the nearly complete skeleton of an ancient male. In the Ancient DNA Hub, Kennewick Man is the individual described in the Kennewick Man story. He is also the individual in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Kennewick Man. The man’s skeleton was found in 1996 near a town called Kennewick in Washington state, located at 46.21N -119.12E and carbon-dated to between 6340 and 7200 BCE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be X2a and his Y-DNA haplogroup was found to be Q-M3.
Minoans and Mycenaeans
Greek maritime city sophisticates from the Bronze Age who left writings in Linear A and Linear B
Sample biography: Callisto is the name given to the skeletal remains of an ancient female. In Greek mythology, she was a nymph ravished by Zeus whom Artemis turned into a bear and who was later translated to the heavens as the constellation of the Great Bear. In the Ancient DNA Hub, Callisto belongs to the story of Ayia Kyriaki, Armenoi, Peristeria, and Galatas Apatheia. Callisto is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Minoans and Mycenaeans. The woman’s skeleton was excavated at Ayia Kyriaki, located on the on the island of Salamis west of Athens, at 37.97N 23.50E and carbon-dated to about 1337 BCE. Her mitochondrial DNA was assigned to X2d.
Ötzi the Ice Man
Europe’s oldest known and most-studied natural mummy, a 5,000 year-old Alpine male with Sardinian DNA connections from Copper Age Italy
Description: The single individual in this sample, known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi, was discovered in 1991, when two German hikers spotted a shriveled corpse partly covered by snow and ice while trekking across a pass in the Ötztal Alps. The exact location of the body was just 15 feet within the border between Italy and Austria on the Italian side. The individual was carbon dated to between 5,105 and 5,359 years old. An arrowhead lodged in his left side suggested a violent death. Ötzi had sixty-one tattoos, produced by piercing the epidermis and rubbing in charcoal dust. He suffered from osteoarthritis of the spine, and some of the tattoo marks appeared to be in places targeted by modern acupuncture for this condition. It is believed that some of the osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint injury may have been caused by the presence of coronary heart disease and Lyme disease. Genetic analysis suggests that the Ice Man had brown eyes, belonged to blood group O, was lactose intolerant, was about 45 years old and measured 5 feet 3 inches in height…
Vikings in Medieval Iceland
Norse and Irish settlers in Iceland from its earliest colonization
Sample biography: Randi is the name given to the skeletal remains of an ancient male. In the Ancient DNA Hub, Randi is among the skeletons found in the Icelandic Vikings story. Randi is one of the individuals in DNA Consultants’ Primeval DNA Test for Vikings in Medieval Iceland. The man’s skeleton was excavated at Straumur near Hofsjӧkull Glacier in Iceland, located at 65.35N -14.46E, https://earth.app.goo.gl/XdkzFR and carbon-dated to about 995 CE. His mitochondrial haplogroup was determined to be U4b1b1 and his Y-DNA haplogroup was shown to be R1b1a1a2a. Randi was aged 45 years old when he died. He was buried alongside two adults and a child, with several grave goods including a knife, axe and lead weight. Another offering to the earth was a collection of boat rivets. Was Randi a shipbuilder? There were many types of Viking boat, including the famous longship, used for exploring and raiding as far as the Mediterranean and the Americas. Longships were designed with a long, narrow hull to help deploy warriors in shallow water and penetrate up rivers. They had both oars and a sail to allow navigation even with no wind. Crystals were used to mark the position of the sun on overcast days or in heavy fog.
More ancient DNA tests available in September…