Native American DNA

Anderson, David G. and J. Christopher Gillam (2000). “Paleoindian Colonization of the Americas:  IMplications from the Examination of Physiography, Demography, and Artifact Distribution.” American Antiquity 65/1:43-66.

Arnold, Jeanne E. (2007). “Credit Where Credit is Due:  The History of the Chumash Oceangoing Plank Canoe.” American Antiquity 72/2:196-209.

Bailliet G, Rothhammer F, Carnese FR, Bravi CM, Bianchi NO. (1994) Founder mitochondrial haplotypes in Amerindian populations. Am J Hum Genet. 55(1):27-33.

Bandelt, H-J. et al. (2005). Identification of Native American Founder mtDNAs Through the Analysis of Complete mtDNA Sequences:  Some Caveats. Ann Hum Genet.

Bert F, Corella A, Gene M, Perez-Perez A, Turbon D. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Llanos de Moxos: Moxo, Movima and Yuracare Amerindian populations from Bolivia lowlands.  Ann Hum Biol. 31(1):9-28.

Bever, Michael R. (2006). “Too Little, Too Late? The Radiocarbon Chronology of Alaska and the Peopling of the New World.”American Antiquity 71/4: 595-620.

Bianchi, N.O. et al. (1997). Origin of Amerindian Y-chromosomes As Inferred by the Analysis of Six Polymorphic Markers. Am J Phys Anthropol 102:79-89.

Bianchi, N.O. et al. (1998) Characterization of Ancestral and Derived Y-chromosome Haplotypes of New World Native Populations. Am J Hum Genet 63:1862-71.

Bolnick, D. A. and Smith, D. G. (2003)  Unexpected patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation among Native Americans from the southeastern United States. Am J Phys Anthropol. 122(4):336-54.

Bonatto SL, Salzano FM. (1997). Diversity and age of the four major mtDNA haplogroups, and their implications for the peopling of the New World. Am J Hum Gent. 61/6:1413-23

Bonatto SL, Salzano FM. (1997) A single and early migration for the peopling of the Americas supported by mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 4;94(5):1866-71.

Bortolini, M.C., et al. (2002) Y-chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms and Native American Population Structure. Ann Hum Genet.

Bortolini MC, Salzano FM, Thomas MG, Stuart S, Nasanen SP, Bau CH, Hutz MH, Layrisse Z, Petzl-Erler ML, Tsuneto LT, Hill K, Hurtado AM, Castro-de-Guerra D, Torres MM, Groot H, Michalski R, Nymadawa P, Bedoya G, Bradman N, Labuda D, Ruiz-Linares A. (2002) Y-chromosome evidence for differing ancient demographic histories in the Americas. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Sep;73(3):524-39.

Brace, C. Loring et al. (2004). “Peopling of the New World:  A Comparative Craniofacial View.” In The Settlement of the American Continents:  A Multidisciplinary Approach to Human Biogeography, ed. C. Michael Barta et al. Tucson: U of Arizona P.

Brown, M.D. et al. (1998) mtDNA Haplogroup X:  An Ancient Link between Europe/Western Asia and North America? Am J Hum Genet 63:1852-61.

Cann RL.(1994) mtDNA and Native Americans: a Southern perspective. Am J Hum Genet. 55(1):7-11.

Carlyle, S. W. et al. (2000). “Context of Maternal Lineages in the Greater Southwest.” Am J Phys Anthropol. 113/1:85-101. Anasazi (n=27) have 22% A, 56% B, and 15% C.

Carter, George F. (1980). Earlier Than You Think: A Personal View of Man in America. College Station:  Texas A&M UP.

Chatters, James C. (2001). Ancient Encounters. Kennewick Man and the First Americans. New York:  Simon and Schuster.

Crawford, M.H. (1998). The Origins of Native Americans. Evidence from Anthropological Genetics. Cambridge:  Cambridge UP. Latest textbook on the subject, but already very much outdated.

Dillehay, Thomas D. (2000). The Settlement of the Americas:  A New Prehistory. New York:  Basic.

Dornelles, C. L. et al. (2004). “Is Haplogroup X Present in Extant South American Indians?” Am J Phys Anthropol 127:439-48.

Easton, R. D., et al. (1996). MtDNA Variation in the Yanomami:  Evidence for Additional New World Founding Lineages. Am J Hum Genet 59:213-25.

Eshelman, J.A. et al. (2004). Mitochondrial DNA and Prehistoric Settlements:  Native Migrations on the Western Edge of North America. Human Biology 76(1):55-75.

Eshleman, J.A. et al. (2003) Mitochondrial DNA studies of Native Americans: Conceptions and misconceptions of the population prehistory of the Americas 12: 7-18.

Fagan, Brian (2000). Ancient North America:  The Archaeology of a Continent. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Fahey, Bede (2005/2006). “A Summary of Mayan:  A Sino-Tibetan Language?” Pre-Columbiana:  A Journal of Long-Distance Contacts 3/4/4/1.

Foster, Mary LeCrone (1998). “The Transoceanic Trail:  The Proto-Pelagian Lanugage Phyllum.” Pre-Columbiana:  A Journal of Long-Distance Contacts 1/1-2:88-114.

Gibbons A. (1996) The peopling of the Americas. Science 4;274(5284):31-3.

Gilbert, Thomas P. (2009). “How Much Faith Can We Put in Genetic Data?” (forthcoming)

Goodyear, Albert C. (2005). “Evidence for Pre-Clovis Sites in the Eastern United States.” In Paleoamerican Origins:  Beyond Clovis, ed. R. Bonnischen et al. College Station:  Texas A&M University. Pp. 103-112.

Green, L.D., et al. (2000). MtDNA Affinities of the Peoples of North-Central Mexico. Am J Hum Genet 66:989-98.

Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford, Calif.:  Stanford University Press.

Greenberg J. H .(1996) The “Greenberg hypothesis.” Science 274:1447.

Greenberg JH, Turner CG, Zegura SL (1986) The settlement of the Americas: a comparison of the linguistic, dental and genetic evidence. Curr Anthropol 27:477498.

Guthrie, James L. (2001). Human Lymphocyte Antigens:  Apparent Afro-Asiatic, Southern Asian, and European HLAs in Indigenous American Populations. Pre-Columbiana 2/2-3:90-163.

Horai S, Kondo R, Nakagawa-Hattori Y, Hayashi S, Sonoda S, Tajima K. (1993) Peopling of the Americas, founded by four major lineages of mitochondrial DNA. Mol Biol Evol. 10(1):23-47. First   to suggest that there were a limited number of female lineages among American Indians and their DNA reflected Asian origins. Later these haplogroups were called A, B, C, and D.

Horai S, Kondo R, Murayama K, Hayashi S, Koike H, Nakai N. (1991) Phylogenetic affiliation of ancient and contemporary humans inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Philos Tran R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 30:333(1268):409-16.

Horai S, Murayama K, Hayasaka K, Matsubayashi S, Hattori Y, Fucharoen G, Harihara S, Park KS, Omoto K, Pan IH. (1996) mtDNA polymorphism in East Asian Populations, with special reference to the peopling of Japan. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Sep;59(3):579-90.

Huoponen, K. et al. (1997). Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome-Specific Polymorphisms in the Seminole Tribe of Florida. European Journal of Human Genetics 5:25-34.

Ikawa-Smith, F. (2004). “Humans along the Pacific Margin of Northeast Asia before the Last Glacial Maximum.” In Entering America:  Northeast Asia and Beringia before the Last Glacial Maximum, ed. D. B. Madsen, pp. 285-309. Salt Lake City: U of Utah P.

Jairazbhoy, R.A. (1974). Ancient Egyptians and Chinese in America. Old World Origins of American Civilizations 1. London:  Prior.

Jantz, Richard L. and Douglas W. Owsley (2001). “Variation among Early North American Crania.” American Journal of PHysical Anthropology 114/2:146-55.

Jett, Stephen C. (2009). “Genetics Geography Implies a Minimum of Four Major Late Pleistocene Movements and Four Major Early to Middle Holocene Movements of Modern Humans into the Americas.” International Science Conf., Los Angeles, May 2009.

Jett, Stephen C. (1968). Malaysia and Tropical America:  Some Racial, Cultural, and Ethnobotanical Comparisons. Internat. Congress of Americanists 37/4:133-77.

————— (1999). “The Jomon of Neolithic Japan:  Early Ocean-Goers.” Pre-Columbiana:  A Journal of Long-Distance Contacts 1/3-4:158-63.

————— (2003). “Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Contacts:  The Present State of the Evidence.” NEARA Journal 36/2:4-8. New England Antiquities Research Assn.

Jones, Peter N. (2002). American Indian Demographic History and Cultural Affiliation:  A Discussion of Certain Limitations on the use of mtDNA and Y Chromosome Testing. Boulder, Colo.:  The Bäuu Institute. Because of the high mobility of American Indian groups in the prehistoric [period], along with examples of intergroup marriage and non-random mating, there is ample reason to believe that the genetic history of Americans Indians is much more complex than the current five haplogroup frequencies lead us to believe” (p. 9).

Karafet, T. et al. (1999). Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y-Chromosome Founder Haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 64:817-31.

Kolman, C.J. and E. Bermingham (1997). Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Diversity in the Choco and Chibcha Amerinds of Panama. Genetics 147:1289-1302.

Lahr,  M.M. (1995) Patterns of modern human diversification: implications for Amerindian origins. Yearbook Phys Anthropol 38:163198. Anthropometric study revealed the existence of skeletons not typical of Mongoloids among the oldest hominids in the Americas, suggesting an earlier, non-Mongoloid migration.

Lalueza-Fox C, Calderon FL, Calafell F, Morera B, Bertranpetit J. (2001) mtDNA from extinct Tainos and the peopling of the Caribbean. Ann Hum Gent. 65(pt.2):137-51.

Lell, J.T. et al. Y Chromosome Haplotypes Reveal Distinct Migration Patterns in Siberia and the Americas. ASHG Program: Over 96% of the Native American Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup A0 (defined by the M9 polymorphism) or A1 (M9/M3). Network analysis supported the conclusion that haplogroup A1 had a single origin during or immediately prior to initial entry into the New World. Additionally, the A0 haplotypes which probably gave rise to the A1 lineage were observed in the Chukchi, Kets, and Tuvans, in accordance with previous studies which traced the origin of this lineage to Central Siberia. Interestingly, a much more recently arisen lineage (A3), defined by the Tat polymorphism, was also shown to have its origin in Central Asia. The distribution of these lineages suggests that at least two major population expansion/migration events originated in the area of Lake Baikal, with the second event occurring after entry into the New World was blocked by glacial ice sheets.

Lalueza, C. et al. (1997). Lack of Founding Amerindian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Extinct Aborigines from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia. Hum Mol Genet 6:41-46. Since A and B were lacking in ancient DNA at the tip of South America, they were probably also lacking in the early settlement of the Americas about 14,000 to 21,000 years ago. One ancient DNA haplogroup was unknown, presumably extinct today.

Lalueza, C. et al. (1996). Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Four Tribes from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia:  Inferences about the Peopling of the Americas. Hum Biol 68:855-71.

Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, Su B, Jin L, Schurr TG, Underhill PA, Wallace DC. (2002) The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Jan;70(1):192-206.

Lewis, C. M. et al. (2004). “Land, Language and Loci:  mtDNA in Native Americans and the Genetic History of Peru.” Am J Phys Anthropol 127:351-360.

Lorenz, J.G. and D.G. Smith (1996). Distribution of Four Founding mtDNA Haplogroups among Native North Americans. Am J Phys Anthropol  101:307-23.

————– (1997). Distribution of Sequence Variation in the mtDNA Control Region of Native North Americans. Human Biology 69:749-76.

Malhi, R.S., et al. (2006). “Demystifying Native American Genetic Opposition to Research.” Evolutionary Anthropology 15:88-92.

Malhi, R.S. et al. (2001). Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages among Native American Tribes of Northeastern North America. Hum Biol 73:17-55.

Malhi, R.S., et al. (2006). “Mitochondrial Haplogroup M Discovered in Prehistoric North Americans.” J. Archaeological Sc. I20:1-7.

Malhi, R.S., et al. (2003). Native American mtDNA Prehistory in the American Southwest. Am J of Phys Anthropol 120:108-24.

Mahli, Ripan S. et al (2001). The Structure of Diversity within New World Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups: Implications for the Prehistory of North America, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 70:905-919.

Malhi, Ripan S. and Jason A. Eshleman (2004). The Uses and Limitations of DNA Ancestry Tests for Native Americans, submitted for publication 1/16/04.

Malhi, R. S. and Smith, D. G. (2002) Haplogroup X confirmed in prehistoric America. Brief Communication. Am. J. of Phys. Anthrop. 119:84-86. X represents about 3% of Native American mtDNA. Malhi’s team confirmed X (marked by a transition of G to A at HVS-1 site 16,213, plus a mutation at 14465) in a prehistoric sample from the Columbia River in Washington state dated about 1340 YBP. The report suggests a Siberian source population since the Altai people there are the only population to exhibit all five Native American mtDNA lineages (A, B, C, D, and X).

Merriwether DA, Rothhammer F, Ferrell RE. (1995) Distribution of the four founding lineage haplotypes in Native Americans suggests a single wave of migration for the New World. Am J Phys Anthropol. 98(4):411-30.

Molecular Anthropology Laboratory University of Rome – Tor Vergata – Department of Biology. Dogrib Indians have 100% A haplogroup, and there is surprising diversity in other populations, including unstudied additional founders (Mapuche, Cayapa). The following have high incidences of “other” (non-ABCD) maternal lineages:  Ojibwa (25%), Mohawk (28.7), Cayapa (21.7-see Rickards 1999). “The degree of variability carried by the Asian ancestral populations into the New World was rather high.”

Monsalve MV, Stone AC, Lewis CM, Rempel A, Richards M, Straathof D, Devine DV. (2002) Brief communication: molecular analysis of the Kwaday Dan Ts’finchi ancient remains found in a glacier in Canada. Am J Phys Anthropol.119(3):288-91. 550 year-old-man belonged to Haplogroup A.

Monsalve, M.V. et al. (1996). Phylogenetic Analysis of mtDNA Lineages in South American Mummies. Ann Hum Genet 60:292-303.

Neves WA, Pucciarelli HM (1991) Morphological affinities of the first Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South-American human remains. J Hum Evol 21:261273.

Novick, Gabriel E. et al., “Polymorphic Alu Insertions and the Asian Origins of Native American Populations,” Human Biology 1998 Feb;70/1: 23-39.

O’Rourke. D. H., et al. (2000). Spatial and Temporal Stability of mtDNA Haplogroup Frequencies in Native North America. Hum Biol 72:15-34. In the American Southwest, at least, the prehistoric inhabitants exhibit the same level of mtDNA variability as contemporary populations.

———– (1997). Ancient DNA Analyses in the Eastern Great Basin:  The Northern Utah Fremont and Their Neighbors. Am J Phys Anthropol 113:19-29.

Pena, S.D.J. et al. (1995). A Major Founder Y-chromosome Haplotype in Amerindians. The founder type is Q3. Nature Genet 11:15-16.

Population studies on three Native Alaska population groups using STR loci, FSI, 2002, p51-57.

Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1836). The American Nations, or, Outlines of Their General History, Ancient and Modern: Including the Whole History of the Earth and Mankind in the Western Hemisphere:  the Philosophy of American History:  the Annals, Traditions, Civilization, Languages, &c., of All the American Nations, Empires, and States… Philadelphia:  Printed for the Author.

Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1824). Ancient History, or Annals of Kentucky: with a Survey of the Ancient Monuments of North America, and a Tabular View of the Principal Languages and Primitive Nations of the Whole Earth Frankfort, Ky.:  Printed for the author. Available online courtesy of the Filson Historical Society and University of Chicago Press at American Memory Home

Renfrew, C., ed. (2000). America Past, America Present:  Genes and Languages in the Americas and Beyond. Cambridge: McDonald Institute.

Rickards O, Martinez-Labarga C, Lum JK, De Stefano GF, Cann RL. (1999) mtDNA history of the Cayapa Amerinds of Ecuador: detection of additional founding lineages for the Native American populations.Am J Hum Genet. 65(2):519-30. A fourth lineage, apparently unique to the Cayapa, has ambiguous affinity to known clusters A, B. and C.

Ruiz-Linares, A., et al. (1999). Microsatellites Provide Evidence for Y Chromosome Diversity among the Founders of the New World. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:6312-17.

Salzano, F. M. (2002). “Molecular Variability in Amerindians:  Widespread but Uneven Information.” An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 74/2. Available online at SciELO Brasil Site

Santos, F. R. et al. (1999) The central Siberian origin for Native American Y chromosomes. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 64:619-628. The major Native American Y haplotype [Q] occurs in high frequencies among Amerindians, Na-Denes, and Aleut-Eskimos (Pena et al. 1995; Santos et al. 1995a, 1996b; Underhill et al. 1996; Karafet et al. 1997; Lell et al. 1997; Rodriguez-Delfin et al. 1997; Underhill et al. 1997). It represented 90% of 90 non-admixed South American Indians in our previous studies (Pena et al. 1995; Santos et al. 1995a) and 60% of 412 Native American Y chromosomes analyzed by other groups (Underhill et al. 1996; Karafet et al. 1997; Lell et al. 1997; Rodriguez-Delfin et al. 1997; Underhill et al. 1997), including Y chromosomes from tribes with a very high level of admixture, especially in North America (Santos et al. 1996b; Crawford 1998). The presence of this founder Y haplotype in the Americas suggests a single major migration.

Schau, Paul (1984). The Origin of Ancient American Cultures. Ames:  Iowa State University Press.

Schroeder, K. B. et al. (2007). “A Private Allele Ubiquitous in the Americas.” Biol Lett 3/2:218-23.

Schurr, Theodore G. (2000). Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World. American Scientist 88/3:246-53.

Schurr, T.G. et al. (1990) Amerindian mitochondrial DNAs have rare Asian mutations at high frequencies, suggesting they derived from four primary material lineages. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46: 613-23.

Schurr, T.G. & Sherry, S. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome diversity and the peopling of the Americas: evolutionary and demographic evidence.
Am J Hum Biol. 16(4):420-39.

Scozzari, R. et al. (1997). MtDNA and Y Chromsome-specific Polymorphisms in Modern Ojibwa:  Implications About the Origin of Their Gene Pool. Am J Hum Genet 60-241-44.

Smith, D.G., et al. (1999). Distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup X among Native North Americans. Am J Phys Anthropol 110:271-84.

Smith, D. G. et al. (2005). “Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups of Paleoamericans in North America.” In Paleoamerican Origins: Beyond Clovis, ed. Robson Bonnischen et al., pp. 243-54. College Station:  Texas A&M UP.

Stewart, Ethel G. (1991). The Dene and Na-Dene Indian Migration – 1233 A.D. Escape from Genghis Khan to America. Columbus, Ga.:  ISAC Press.

Starikovskaya E. B. et al. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups. Ann Hum Genet. 69:67-89.

Stone, A.C. and Stoneking, M. (1999). Analysis of Ancient DNA from a Prehistoric Amerindian Cemetery.  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:153-59.

Tallbear, K. (2003). Can DNA Determine Who Is American Indian? Indian Country Today, December 3, 2003. Short answer:  No.

Tarazona-Santos, E., and F.R. Santos (2002). The Peopling of the Americas:  A Second Major Migration? Am J Hum Genet 70:1377-80. Discounts second wave of Y chromosomes.  Full text.

Torroni, Antonio et al (1993). Asian Affinities and Continental Radiation of the Four Founding Native American mtDNAs. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 53/3:563-90.

Torroni, A., et al. (1992). Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations. Genetics 130:153-62.

Torroni, A. et al. (1994). MtDNA and Y-chromosome Polymorphisms in Four Native American Populations from Southern Mexico. Am J Hum Genet 54:303-18. The populations were Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe. Haplogroup D was not observed here.

Torroni A, Sukernik RI, Schurr TG, Starikorskaya YB, Cabell MF, Crawford MH, Comuzzie AG, Wallace DC. (1993) mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans. Am J Hum Genet. 53(3):591-608.

Wallace DC, Torroni A. (1992) American Indian prehistory as written in the mitochondrial DNA: a review. Hum Biol.;64(3):403-16.

Wallace, D.C. et al. (1985). Dramatic Founder Effects in Amerindian Mitochondrial DNAs. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:149-55. The article that established the idée fixe that there was only one peopling of the Americas.

Wang, S. et al. (2007). “Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans.” PLoS Genetics 3/11 (with good bibliog.):  Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans.

Ward RH, Redd A, Valencia D, Frazier B, Pääbo S (1993) Genetic and linguistic differentiation in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90:10663-10667.

Ward, R.H. et al. (1991). Extensive Mitochondrial Diversity Within a Single Amerindian Tribe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:8720-8274. The tribe is the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of the Pacific Northwest, in which 28 lineages were found. ”These data do not support the concept of a dramatic founder effect during the peopling of the Americas.  Free full text.

Wilford, J.N. (1998). In Peru, Evidence of an Early Human Maritime Culture. New York Times, September 22, 1998.

Xiao, Feng-Xia et al., “Diversity at Eight Polymorphic Alu Insertion Loci in Chinese Populations Shows Evidence for European Admixture in an Ethnic Minority Population from Northwest China,” Human Biology 2002 Aug;74/4:555-568.

Yates, Donald N. and Teresa A. Yates (2014). Cherokee DNA Studies: Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong. Phoenix: Panther’s Lodge.