Did the Kon-Tiki Sail in the Wrong Direction?


Oxford geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer holds a copy of his book translated into Indonesian

Oxford geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer holds a copy of his book translated into Indonesian, one of the languages spoken in the drowned continent of Sundaland which he argued was the source of much of the folklore in the Bible, among other surprising influences. The words for lemon and cinnamon come from Austronesian languages.

Thor Heyerdahl recruited five fellow Norwegians to build and sail a balsa wood raft from Ecuador westward to Polynesia. His account was translated into English in 1950, and has put “diffusionism” in the scientific doghouse ever since. The feat was without question the greatest sea adventure of our time. Heyerdahl died in 2002.  The original Kon-Tiki can be seen today in a museum in Norway.

Little-known German cultural philosopher Heide Göttner-Abendroth visited many of the surviving matriarchies in the world, including those of Austronesia, made famous by Bronislaw Malinowski’s Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922). She suggested the ancestors of American Indians dispersed eastward across the earth’s largest ocean, beginning with the matriarchal mountain and maritime peoples of China like the Yueh and Eastern Islanders. Many tribes then migrated up from the South. The main settlement of the Americas was not from north to south but from the bottom up.

Little-known German cultural philosopher Heide Göttner-Abendroth visited many of the surviving matriarchies in the world, including those of Austronesia, made famous by Bronislaw Malinowski’s Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922). She suggested American Indians dispersed eastward across the earth’s largest ocean. Many tribes then migrated up from the South. The main settlement of the Americas was not from north to south but from the bottom up.

Thor Heyerdahl recruited five fellow Norwegians to build and sail a balsa wood raft from Ecuador westward to Polynesia. His account was translated into English in 1950, and has put “diffusionism” in the scientific doghouse ever since. The feat was without question the greatest sea adventure of our time. Heyerdahl died in 2002.  The original Kon-Tiki can be seen today in a museum in Norway.

 

I recently reread Stephen Oppenheimer’s classic detective story, Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia. To recap briefly its conclusions, the famous Oxford geneticist dissects the folklore motifs of the Biblical story of the Garden of Eden, Noah’s flood, the Tower of Babel, Tree of Knowledge and Cain and Abel and traces them back to Sundaland, a region once the size of North America , now a submerged shelf of land in the South China Sea. He sees Sundaland as the original home of the Austronesian and Austro-Asiatic languages, its people scattered over a wide area by maritime flooding and other catastrophic changes released in three waves from about 9,000 to 1500 BCE. Oppenheimer makes brilliant use of converging evidence from geography, oceanography, archeology, linguistics, archeomythology and genetics to argue that Island Southeast Asia and its long-distance sea traders were the source of monumental stone architecture, agricultural crops, ship technology, metallurgy, religion, belief in immortality, magic, medicine, kingship and much more.

Oppenheimer was the first to document linkage between disparate populations proven by common genes for thalassaemia, a hereditary anemia that offered protection against malaria. His discovery dates back to 1984, during his career as a government pediatrician on New Guinea.[1] Eventually this simple marker was named the Polynesian gene and acknowledged to be “the best evidence against Thor Heyerdahl’s vision of the colonization of the Pacific westwards from South America.”[2]  Originating in Wallacea, the region that divided Island Southeast Asia and New Guinea, it traveled all across the Pacific with the expansion of mitochondrial haplogroup B, a lineage held by 94 percent of Polynesians.[3]

Oppenheimer was not afraid to do battle against Australian-based archeologist Peter Bellwood, whose standard history (still widely adopted) had the Austronesians emerging in Middle Neolithic cultures that lived at the mouth of the Yangtze River and further north in mainland China. Nor was he reluctant to attack the views of Robert Blust, the Austronesian linguist from Hawaii who cemented into orthodoxy the “Out of Taiwan” theory of Austronesian origins and “express train to Polynesia,” centered on the rather-late-in-the-game Lapita culture beginning only three to four thousand years ago.

In retrospect, perhaps Oppenheimer did not go far enough. Haplogroup B and the Polynesian motif have been noticed among American Indians. Both the Cherokees and Hopi have very high incidences of haplogroup B, as well as origin narratives suggesting trans-Pacific migration with disappearing stepping-stone islands. A study of South American Indians established as early as 1995 that “the α-globin gene haplotype distribution has some similarities to distributions observed in Southeast Asia and Pacific Island populations, indicating that these populations have considerable genetic affinities … the result of ancient common ancestry.”[4]

Perhaps one of the most shocking of Oppenheimer’s suggestions was about the genesis of the worldwide racial myth of the “warring brothers.” This influential body of folk tales centers around Cain and Abel in Mesopotamia and Kulabob and Manup in New Guinea and Melanesia. The theme arose, speculates Oppenheimer, more than 10,000 years ago in the evolutionary clash between dark-skinned Negritoes and Australoids and fair-skinned Asians and Austronesians. At any rate, a dual origin for Polynesians has long been apparent to visitors and scientists.[5]

The traditional Cherokee origin story contains a memory of a time when “a strange race of men crossed the great waters and landed warriors who began to attack the Cherokee tribe.” The sea was black with their canoes, but the Cherokee vanquished them through clever stratagems and ages passed in peace and prosperity in the old country, though the land was continually besieged by floods and poisoned for growing food.[6] Most Native American cultures also feature “the Twins,” one of whom is good and one bad. In Maya myth, it is Hunahpu and Xbalanque. They visit the Underworld (other side of the globe) in one story.

Just to mention one other affinity shared by Amerindian and Pacific Islander populations: both Polynesians and Native Americans have the same risk for Type 2 diabetes, three times that of other racial groups. Epigenetics may be involved, but common genetic roots in the deep past seem to be primarily responsible for such a high incidence. We cannot attribute such a risk to passage across the high latitudes of Siberia and Alaska, no more than we can suspect malaria as a driving force in those climes.

We wish brilliant scientists would read each other’s books. Oppenheimer has nothing to say about matriarchal societies and Heide Göttner-Abendroth, the founder of modern matriarchy studies, never mentions Sundaland.  She does, however, posit that matriarchy, along with megalithic stone shrines to the ancestors and belief in rebirth, spread from a center in Indo-China. The Indonesian people emerged out of the Eastern Islands or Yueh people. Common roots in “one of the birthplaces of matriarchy” in the highlands of the great Asian rivers accounts for the heavily matriarchal cast of Arawak, Kuna, Iroquois and other peoples in the Western Hemisphere.[7] Göttner-Abendroth has important pieces on the surviving matriarchal cultural patterns in the Minangkabau in Indonesia (the largest such group in the world today), the Trobriand Islanders, the Mosuo of China and Pacific Island societies.

The center of action in deep time for Göttner-Abendroth is China rather than (as it is for Oppenheimer) Island Indonesia. Maybe the two views could be harmonized, however.

The Sundaland Gene

One of the 33 Rare Genes from History discovered by DNA Consultants in investigating the forensic ancestry of individuals and populations was the Sundaland Gene. Looking back after nearly 15 years, I am struck as never before at the clear picture it paints of populations fleeing the now-vanished Sundaland and taking refuge in more hospitable places in the world. These dispersals were seaborne, strategic and continuous for more than five thousand years’ duration during the eventful Neolithic, long before the Lapita culture came upon the stage of history. If we tabulate the present-day populations where the imprint of Sundaland genes survives most markedly, it is the island of Java that has the strongest match. Here the percentage of the populace that still carry a distinctive allele in the locus called THO1 by forensic scientists is 15%. Recall that Indonesia today has the largest and most vital matriarchal culture in the world.

Oppenheimer writes extensively of the unique refugia developed by Sundaland migrants in Malaysia, Java, Thailand, Bali, Filipino, Taiwan, the Munda of India… All these places evidently ringed the submerged heartland. Added to them are far-flung daughter settlements of Egypt, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Polynesia (Samoa, Tonga), East Africa (Somalia), Madagascar and Arabia. What he only hints at—the migrations Göttner-Abendroth’s theory lends credence to—are the Western Hemisphere extensions in the Mixte of Oaxaca in south central Mexico (#4) and among the Huichols of northwestern Mexico (#32). Altogether, expressed as a megapopulation, American Indians have a small but measurable incidence of 3.7% matching our Sundaland Gene, whose frequency in Southeast Asia and Austronesia is between 12 and 13%, the highest worldwide. Once again, we are confronted with a rare but ancient and persistent marker with a definite story to tell. Its world average frequency in places that have it is 2.2%, and many countries do not have it at all.

In terms of metapopulations, Thais and Indonesians vie for the top spot, followed by Aboriginal Taiwanese, the Dyaks of Borneo and Malays. On the scale further down are Chinese (Singapore, Chaozhou, Cantonese and Sichuan, in other words those populations closest to the center of destruction), Vietnamese, Pacific Islanders, Berbers, Jews and Levantines. One can well envisage the ripple effect of Sundaland’s sinking and the global journeys of its seafarers carrying the seeds for survival to the corners of the earth.

Were the Sundaland argonauts the same as the “wise men of Seg” who taught the Cherokee about gods and temples and oracles? These culture carriers were remembered as “a wise branch of the tribe known as those who spoke the language of Seg,” a tribe initiated into “the Eastern mysteries.”

I believe I may be the first to suggest the Cherokee came from Melanesia or Island Indonesia, but the theory makes eminent sense in the light of the importance of Sundaland in prehistory, particularly since the original “Cherokee before the Cherokee” were skilled and repeatedly tested by the “movements and activities of the floods.”

Seg is an Austronesian language of Indonesia, part of the very large language family known as Central-Eastern-Malayo Polynesian, with a western form called Thai-Seg and eastern form spoken in the Madang province of Papua New Guinea known as Sek, or Gedaged.  The word points to the dispersals from Sundaland and initial sea voyages of the Melanesians and Polynesians since it is the name of an important non-native clan in New Guinea. There is a village called Sek, or Seg, in the Madang district on the north coast, a town called Segh in the Solomon Islands just east of there (one of the stepping stones of the Polynesians), and also a Seg, or Sag Sag, on the nearby island of New Britain, the spring pad for Polynesian colonizers. There is also a tiny branch in South America.[8]

After examining and refuting current theories about the Austronesians, Oppenheimer devotes the second half of his book (Pt. II, pp. 221-474) to a study of Sundaland mythography. Without question, there are numerous parallels with Cherokee stories, including the very specific motifs of the Great Hawk (Sinnawa), a world flood, wise chief named Moytoy (sea conqueror), storehouse that reaches to heaven, man riding an eagle to the top of the world, the boat of souls, tree totems, water dragons and sea monsters, immortal magic snake (Uktena, “unkillable”), twin boys who conspire to do away with their witch mother, Selu, evidently a moon goddess, dragging her body through the fields, fairy folk and much more. One of the most intriguing myths taken apart by Oppenheimer is that of the “man in the tree” or “dying and rising tree god” (Adonis, Attis, Jesus).

All this seems to be from a patriarchal point of view and apparently all of it relates to men’s secret societies, to which women are forbidden. This is definitely not a version of “herstory.” As Göttner-Abendroth and other feminist critics have pointed out, men’s secret societies always arise as a masculine response to matriarchal forms of religion and external threats. Rites in the men’s house imitate the young girl’s coming of age ceremony, where she is valued as the community’s giver of life and instructed by wise women in the practice of arts peculiar to clan mothers (Göttner-Abendroth). Thus, men competed with women and showed that even they could give birth and bring about rebirth.

Very often, societies masculinize and turn to violence and become patriarchal as a response to environmental stress such as desertification around the Sahara, Arabian and Central Asia deserts.[9] Did Sundaland develop its super-strong patriarchal tendencies because of the recurring invasion of chaos from the sea? If so, the Polynesian chief came by his absolutism, love of warfare and slavery, and his regal rigidity honestly.

Oppenheimer portrays a vanishing paradise becoming a living hell, with superwaves, overtopped mountains, encroaching sea-levels, endless mangrove swamps, poisoned farmland, floating carcases of men and animals, crocodiles and deadened trees everywhere. Could it be that “the phenomenon of getting as far away as possible, which we encounter in earlier and later times, reflect[ed] a psychotic fear proportional to the horror that occasioned it”? That was how one commentator explained unlikely long-distance connections, adding that “the past may hold as many surprises as the future.” (Cyclone Covey in The Yuchi/Yuki Nonplus, Columbus: ISAC, pp. 44-45.)

Göttner-Abendroth believes that many of the older matriarchal groups on Pacific Islands withdrew into the mountains, built boats and eventually sailed away from the scourge of patriarchy, although in many instances, the men didn’t want to let them go and seem to have pursued them—witness the Arawak and Carib cultures. Getting away from oppressive patriarchs must be added to the countercurrents of prehistory. Such a motive could be just as important as desertification, environmental degradation, flooding, soil exhaustion, plague, pestilence, warfare, political upsets and invasion by the sea caused by melting ice caps.

Part of this dynamic, according to some analysts, would be to blame the Goddess for unleashing invisible violent forces of nature. Steven Sora speculated that in the background of Homer’s tale of the epic Greek and Trojan war was a time when queens lost power to kings and goddesses became subservient to gods. Specifically, the Atlantic sea peoples of the Iberian Peninsula invaded the Mediterranean and brought about destruction reaching all the way eastward to Egypt, Syria and Turkey.[10] As reflected in the patriarchal Bible stories of the Jewish people (#19 metapopulation), the goddess was demonized and woman became the source of evil rather than the bringer of life.

The early diffusionist manifesto by W. J. Perry, The Children of the Sun: A Study of the Egyptian Settlement of the Pacific (1923) documents the fact that most American Indian societies were deeply matriarchal. Southeast Asian, Oceanic and Western Hemisphere indigenous mythologies usually start with a woman falling from the sky. Even the irreligious Cherokee once thought heaven (Calunlati) was a place much like earth, fixed and rigid in space, it became overcrowded and gods and goddesses tumbled down from the sky. For the Iroquois the first woman fell through a hole in the sky. In both myths, land had to be created. Matriarchy in history precedes patriarchy, though patriarchy doesn’t always win out when there is conflict. If Sundaland was originally matriarchal (as much of what we know about it seems to indicate), the argonauts of Sundaland and Melanesia, the founders of civilization in the Middle East, the Nagas of India, the Polynesians, the Sea Peoples of Europe, and yes, most American Indian tribes early on developed fearsome patriarchies.

We don’t pretend to know how Morocco and Berbers (#17) fit into this picture. Maybe we should mention that Barry Fell (another bête noire of mainstream science like Perry) thought the Libyans, Egyptians, Polynesians and New Zealanders were related through the “brown skinned fisherfolk of North African.” (See Barry Fell, Fell, Barry (1980). Saga America, New York: Times, 1980; Bronze Age America, Boston: Little, Brown, 1982; America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Rev. ed., New York: Pocket, 1989).

There is a clan in the Cherokee scheme called the Twister Clan (Ani-Gilohi, Kilohi, Hilohi, Gilogi). It seems to have come from the Pacific, perhaps the far side of that ocean. Here is what we had to say about the Twisters in our little book Cherokee Clans:

Gi-lolo was the land where the earliest ancestors of the Hawaiians came from, identified by later Spanish, Dutch and English navigators as the Moluccas in the Indonesian Archipelago. According to Keetoowah traditions, the original Cherokee arrived in America with “a bunch of Polynesians they brought with them.” In Hawaiian, Hilo means “braid, twisted” (compare Greek illa, “rope”; hilo, “twist, wrap”; hilex, “twisting”). The legend goes that Hawaii’s capital city Hilo got its name from the natives’ skill in twisting together plant fibers to make rope.  The same root appears in hula, the dance (“twist”).  Such a derivation explains why the Twister clan members “were once a proud people who strutted when they walked and twisted their shoulders in a haughty manner.” . . .  Traditions also say the Twisters or Stranger Clan were the priests, teachers and keepers of ancient lore.[11]

The Twisters are also called the Long Hair Clan. Their clan names (Leaf, Tassel, Tree, Cornsilk) often have a “vegetative” or plant kingdom theme. Whereas most American Indian tribes have animal totems like Wolf, Bear, Turtle and Bird, the Cherokees have two plant totems, the Twister and the related Wild Potato Clan, both of which were known “foreign migrants.” The first is believed to come from Southeast Asia and the second from South America.

Space forbids us from going more deeply into Cherokee folklore and religion. We could point out that one of the Cherokee’s oldest and most powerful deities was Age’yaguga, (Bottle Woman),[12] or say that much of the magic in Cherokee conjurors’ charm books seems to be similar to that of New Guinea.[13] But to cite one congruence of Polynesian genes in a single Cherokee descendant, we can end this blog post with Gene Ponder, a participant in DNA Consultants’ Cherokee Study (participant 2.39, P2811). His totally anomalous form of lineage V has no exact mutational match in the world, like many others in the study, but it did have a near-miss match with Polynesian and Tongan specimens in the record. We spoke with Ponder and he gave us permission to use his name and mention his genealogy, which goes back in this line to the Cherokee in Alabama. Ponder is a cabinet manufacturing entrepreneur in East Texas now. Could that career be some kind of genetic memory from woodworker clan ancestors?

At any rate, I hope I have established some ties between Sundaland and Cherokees and shown that Heyerdahl was certainly onto something. He should just have sailed in the opposite direction—from Polynesia to South America—to prove his point.

The Sundaland Gene’s Distribution

RankWorld Population Matches1/RMPFreq.% with Allele
1Java (n = 60)3.333E+001.5000E-0115
2Malaysian – Sarawak – Iban (n = 195)3.968E+001.2600E-0112.6
3Indonesian – Java (n = 105)4.202E+001.1900E-0111.9
4Mexico – Oaxaca – Mixe (n=30)5.000E+001.0000E-0110.0
5Thai (n = 210)5.263E+009.5000E-029.5
6Bali (n = 79)5.269E+009.4900E-029.5
7Filipino (n = 106)6.667E+007.5000E-027.5
8Taiwan (n = 79)7.184E+006.9600E-027.0
9India – Sakaldwipi Brahmin (n = 65)7.225E+006.9200E-026.9
10Moroccan (n = 205)7.463E+006.7000E-026.7
11Chinese – Singapore (n = 209)7.464E+006.6990E-026.7
12India – Munda (n = 68)7.553E+006.6200E-026.6
13Singapore – Malaysian (n =161)7.669E+006.5200E-026.5
14Vietnamese – Hanoi (n = 178)7.692E+006.5000E-026.5
15India – Pallar (n = 33)8.197E+006.1000E-026.1
16Chinese – Hong Kong (n = 284)8.333E+006.0000E-026.0
17Chinese Han – Sichuan Province (n = 100)8.333E+006.0000E-026.0
18Egyptian Copts – Adaima (n = 100)8.333E+006.0000E-026.0
19Chinese – Beijing – Han (n = 201)8.432E+005.9300E-025.9
20Moroccan Berber – Bouhria (n = 104)8.621E+005.8000E-025.8
21Moroccan Berber – Asni (n = 105)8.772E+005.7000E-025.7
22East Timor (n = 141)8.913E+005.6100E-025.6
23Singapore Malaysian (n = 197)8.929E+005.6000E-025.6
24Egyptian Berbers – Siwa (n = 98)8.929E+005.6000E-025.6
25Malaysian – Malay (n = 210)9.091E+005.5000E-025.5
26Chinese – Hong Kong (n = 325)9.259E+005.4000E-025.4
27Southeast Asian (n = 115)9.363E+005.3400E-025.3
28India – Oriya Brahmin (n = 57)9.615E+005.2000E-025.2
29Chinese Han – Chengdu (n = 128)9.804E+005.1000E-025.1
30Chinese – Hong Kong (n = 247)9.804E+005.1000E-025.1
31Taoyan – Taiwan (n = 597)1.000E+015.0000E-025.0
32Mexico – Nayarit and Jalisco – Huichol (n = 30)1.000E+015.0000E-025.0
33Tonga (n=51)1.020E+014.9000E-024.9
34Singapore – Chinese (n = 184)1.022E+014.8900E-024.9
35Asian – Northern Australian (n = 225)1.033E+014.8400E-024.8
36Iraqi – Kurdish (n = 98)1.087E+014.6000E-024.6
37Moroccan Arabs (n = 80)1.136E+014.4000E-024.4
38East Timor (n = 186)1.163E+014.3000E-024.3
39Samoa (n = 95)1.188E+014.2100E-024.2
40Somalian (n = 96)1.190E+014.2000E-024.2
41Arab – Syrian (n = 121)1.190E+014.2000E-024.2
42Arab – Damascus, Syria (n = 119)1.190E+014.2000E-024.2
43New Zealand Asian (n = 1006)1.220E+014.1000E-024.1
44Malaysian – Sarawak – Melanu (n = 128)1.282E+013.9000E-023.9
45India – Tripuri (n = 65)1.299E+013.8500E-023.9
46Chinese – Chao Shan (n = 144)1.316E+013.8000E-023.8
47Madagascar (n=67)1.319E+013.7900E-023.8
48Malaysian – Chinese (n = 210)1.351E+013.7000E-023.7
49Saudi Arabian (n = 73)1.351E+013.7000E-023.7
50New Zealand West Polynesian (n = 5499)1.351E+013.7000E-023.7

 

 MetapopulationRandom Match Prob. (1 in)
1.Thai5.26E+00
2.Indonesian5.81E+00
3.Taiwanese Aboriginal7.18E+00
4.Borneo Dayak8.33E+00
5.Malay8.51E+00
6.Singapore Chinese8.63E+00
7.Cantonese Chinese9.09E+00
8.Vietnamese9.43E+00
9.Taiwanese Chinese1.00E+01
10.Sichuan Chinese1.02E+01
11.Pacific Islander1.18E+01
12.Asian1.18E+01
13.East African1.19E+01
14.Levantine1.19E+01
15.Chaozhou Chinese1.32E+01
16.Southeast African1.32E+01
17.Berber1.33E+01
18.Chinese1.35E+01
19.Jewish1.39E+01
20.Egyptian1.43E+01

 

Mega PopulationRandom Match Probability (1 in)Freq.
1. Southeast Asian7.708E+000.129740
2. Austronesian8.308E+000.120371
3. Jewish1.389E+010.072000
4. East Asian1.520E+010.065807
5. Middle Eastern1.731E+010.057766
6. Armenian2.114E+010.047300
7. South Asian2.174E+010.045993
8. African2.621E+010.038147
9. American Indian2.702E+010.037014
10. Mediterranean European2.952E+010.033875

 

[1] S. J. Oppenheimer et al, “Alpha thalassaemia in Papua New Guinea,” Lancet, 1 (1984)  424–26.

[2] Stephen Oppenheimer, Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia (London: Phoenix, 1998), p. 453. The same author wrote a sequel to his book about Sundaland in Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World (2012).

[3]Bryan Sykes (d. 2020), “The Origins of the Polynesians: An Interpretation from Mitochondrial Lineage Analysis,” American Journal of Human Genetics 57 (1995): 1463-1475;  Stephen Oppenheimer and Martin Richards, “Fast Trains, Slow Boats, and the Ancestry of the Polynesian Islanders,” Science Progress 84/3 (2001): 157-181.

[4] M.A. Zago, “α-Globin Gene Haplotypes in South American Indians, “ Human Biology 67/4 (Aug 1995):535-46; see also V. F. Gonçalves et al, “Identification of Polynesian mtDNA Haplogroups in Remains of Boocudo Amerindians from Brazil,” PNAS 110/16 (2013) -6465-6469.

[5]Manfred Kayser et al, “Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific,” Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (2006): 2234-44.

[6] Donald N. Yates, The Cherokee Origin Narrative. Authentic Text of William Eubanks’ Red Man’s Origin with Notes and Illustrations, Cherokee Chapbooks 1 (Longmont: Panther’s Lodge, 2017), pp. 4-10.

[7] Heide Göttner-Abendroth, Matriarchal Societies: Studies on Indigenous Cultures across the Globe, trans. by Karen Smith (New York: Peter Lang, 2013), pp. 105-130, esp. map 3, p. 125.

[8] Donald N. Yates, Old World Roots of the Cherokee (Jefferson: McFarland, 2012), p. 35.

[9] See James DeMeo, Saharasia: The 4000 B.C. Origins of Child Abuse, Sex-Repression, Warfare and Social Violence, in the Deserts of the Old World. (Ashland: Natural Energy, 1998). See also Cristina Biaggi, ed. The Rule of Mars: Readings on the Origins, History and Impact of Patriarchy. Manchester: Knowledge, Ideas & Trends, 2005.

[10] Steven Sora, The Triumph of the Sea Gods: The War against the Goddess Hidden in Homer’s Tales (Rochester: Destiny, 2007).

[11] Donald N. Panther-Yates, Cherokee Clans: An Informal History (Phoenix: Panther’s Lodge, 2013), p. 21-23.

[12] Yates, Old World Roots, pp. 116f.

[13] See James Mooney, Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (Nashville:  Cherokee Heritage, 1982).

 

The Sundaland Gene

Rare Genes from History DNA Test

Bottle Woman: The Great Goddess in America (blog post, Feb. 4, 2022)

Cosmos Mariner (blog post, Aug. 6, 2020)

Be the first to write a comment.

Your feedback