Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean
Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins
In memoriam Gloria Farley
Donald N. Yates
Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010
SUMMARY Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e. Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.
A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew. They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.
Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary. The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games. The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.
A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.
To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins. The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.
Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)
Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee
(hoi en) telei
wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
stopping place, way-station
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed
those in authority
spectator in a play
raise a smoke, make sacrifice
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish
hairy water monster
Cherokee; original people
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiianhilo)
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
land where the Elohi tarried
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
name of dangerous serpent
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial title; firecracker (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)
8 July, 2017 at 1:43 pm
Hi, I am Greek and I have encountered a Cherokee a few years ago and he had the nickname “Zepher”, I asked him what it meant and he told me it meant western wind, in Greek western wind is called “Zephyros”
Thank you yes…
23 December, 2018 at 9:46 pm
I have done research and visited north Carolina where I was told that I was on the right track…
Reading this has made my day…
Oh my Happy days are here.
3 April, 2021 at 2:01 am
wow – this is all so impressive; thank you everyone
28 January, 2023 at 9:57 pm
1 28 23 Yes , I am part Cherokee and Choctaw Native American East Coast America ,2 of the 5 tribe’s of south East coast
What most people do not know is that the Eastern Native Americans are very different from the West Coast Native Americans . The East Coast Native Americans tend to be tall and thin they do not have flat faces like west coast natives did and the east coast native had lighter skin, than the west coast natives . Exact looked more Middle Eastern. The West Coast Native Americans tend to look Asian and Mexican , they have flat faces that have Asian eyes and they tend to have darker skin especially if they’re from the south Western States. West Coast natives were shor.t men only 5 feet and women under 5 feet in height The five tribes of the East Coast are have stories about the people coming in a big boats from what is these days called Middle East , natives from east coast went on boat trips with Greeks to their land bu to east c ok ast natives did not like Mediterranean dry areas a because it was desert land and dry and east coast America lan DC was subtropical and tropical in some areas and yes they were Hebrew, Greek and Egyptian people that did live on the east coast America for years and the Hebrews marked a lot of rocks in caves with their sign the menorah and and they all bred with the 5 tribe’s in East Coast America They taught the Cherokee People their language , culture and brought gifts and their food. They lived in peace and they did not try to invade their land and commit genocide against the 5 tribe’s they were friends, and take over their land like the white English European men did, who did a genocide on the five tribes and killed 150 million people and still tell the lie to this day that the trail of tears was only 1500 people. NO, NO they need to add a lot of zeros to that 1500 because it was 150 million, 5 tribe’s from Virginia to Northern Florida, Native Americans on the East Coast all knew each other and had trade,. the Native Americans did a census every year they had a culture like the Greeks Egyptians and Hebrews and they lived in pyramid homes made out of log logs and clay and they had fireplaces in the middle of them and they had running water in each home and building ,they had showers and they had what we call toilets today of course they weren’t made of porcelain but they had a sewage system going out of their homes and they had water coming into their home and they had roads they had education government travel and commerce and everything the white European people had, in fact when the white Europeans people came to east coast America they did not bathe often and the native thought they were dirty and they didn’t smell good and they had sickness because they did not bathe often . the natives commonly showered every day in their home so they thought that the white European people were dirty people spreading sickness . whereas the Greeks, Egyptians atlanteans and the Hebrews did bathe everyday . so they considered them clean people.
Yes the five tribes on the East Coast knew the Hebrews Egyptians on Greeks and there’s even stories about the people they called These Days Lebanese but they weren’t called Lebanese then. But the Native Americans knew their land they had been to their land and it between Greek people and Hebrews people land . they all. Visited each other.
Yes there was a land called Atlantis and you can actually see it on maps, it’s Not too far down in the ocean and it was between Africa and South America research mini maps and you will see , it it’s in plain sight they had a very advanced culture like the Greek people did and the Atlantis blew up their land with crystals and light beams and they flew around in air ships and pyramids were like light houses, it was explosion that sunk.atlantid ,the natives knew about this and that’s why they were always afraid to get into a technology ,they were afraid they would blow up their land and everything in it and sink in the water like Atlantis. because they knew that Atlantian had been blown up they had been to Atlantis and Atlantians flew all over world and they had huge boats, they sailed all over earth 🌎 the Greek Hebrew, Egyptian sailed in boats all.over earth they all knew Asians people to. people went all over the world in boats in ancient times that’s what most people don’t understand .they need to remember that Noah built a huge boat and he probably kept building boats the rest of his life ,which Noah lived over 900 years. back then before the flood it was common for people to live anywhere from 500 to 900 years .
so it took hundreds of years for Noah to build that huge boat for all the animals and then of course his sons and grandsons would teach other men how to build boats. so the Egyptians Greeks Atlantians a had huge boats The US government has the five tribes library and many artifacts from all over the world .
Cherokee knew how to speak and write many languages , the EVIL USA European American government stole everything from 5 tribe’s,crystals , jewels, writings , fabrics, tools, from all over earth , medertrain people gave natives gifts from their land. and ithe native 5 tribe’s property is probably in the Smithsonian library in the basement locked up. American Europeans are complaining about being WOKED. The five tribes of the East Coast America were WOKED by the white Europeans English American government. The white Europeans English American government WOKED the five tribes, they LIED and said the 5 tribe’s of east coast didn’t have a language ,they didn’t know how to
count or write, they had undeveloped culture . ALL LIES, 5 five tribes of American East Coast knew culture , language , religion , governments ,everything about medertrain culture and some things they practiced and some they did not . The 5 tribe’s did not like the Romans but considered all people family children of the eternal. Living creator , that humans are organic living things, like the earth is an organtic living thing.
Natives have deep respect and live for ANY LIVING CREATURES
EC American Natives culture was a mixture of Hebrew, Greek, Egyptian and Atlainian cultures cultures. like the Egyptians and mostly the Greeks and the US government lied because they committed a genocide against the 5 tribe’s of EC America and to this day where can you get a DNA TEST that proves your Native American because they’re taking NATIVE AMERICAN DNA OUT OF DNA DATA BASES .They’re still trying to make Native Americans extinct ,they’ve been trying to do that for over 500 years, that is white European men have done since he came to America. I would think that the Egyptian Greek and Hebrew people . Hebrew which Hebrews are called Jewish these days, would have a documents tell it ng about their boat trips to the Americas and their relationship with the people who lived in America because the five tribes on the East Coast have their stories are that the natives got along very well with the Middle Eastern and Alantians, they all.knew each other’s culture ,they were able to talk to each other and they shared a lot of information , they all had trade and they took boat trips together. the five tribes on the East Coast would take both trips with Greek Hebrew and Italian people all over the world. Yes I wish the United States government would reveal everything they stole from the native American five tribes on the East Coast because they had many artifacts and property they stole from 5 tribe’s, many things Greece Egypt Judea , Egypt, Atlantisthat those people had given the the 5 tribe’s of EC America.
Truth is the US European government STOLD everything from the 5 tribe’s on EC North America, ncluding their land , multi-millions of acres of food crops, multi-millions of livestock, multi-millions of log cabin homes and businesses and tens of thousands of horse farms the Native Americans on the East Coast were robbed blind by the white European United States government and that is the truth and they’re trying to commit a genocide against the Native Americans to this day because they don’t want to admit that they committed a genocide and robbed the Native Americans blind. IF ANY REPARTIONS ARE PAID TO PEOPLE THEY SHOULD BE PAID TO NATIVES OF 5 TRIBES OF THE EAST COAST NORTH AMERICA.
Also white European made native Americans slaves but also hàd white Irish people first as their slaves.then other white people from British Ises.
the Natives Chiefs oof the five tribes on the East Coast said that this land is cursed with guns because the European American government committed a genocide of the five tribes -150 million people in just 5 TRIBES with the muskets, chief said that this America would not last long, not 400 yrs that America would be taken over people people from far away with FIRE 🔫 WEAPONS and America would be set on 🔥 then while world would be set set on fire, white people rule FIRE, Also that the firearms the European American army used to commit a genocide against the five natives tribes would kill many Americans , that AMERICA IS CURDED WITH THE FIRE ARMS. Also there is a story that every so many presidents would be shot and killed with FIRE WEAPON, what is called GUNS these days. this prophecy by a native cheifs states this land was taken from NATIVES with the guns and bullets and this nation AMERICA will be destroyed with FIRE because it is cursed with THE INNICRNT BLOOD OF THE NATIVES. the firearm and mass murder was committed against all the natives in North America and Mexico , there were over 500 million Native Americans in just North America when the white European people came to North America. Native American woman had a child every year , native women in America east coast were much stronger and larger than white European women were. Native especially on the East Coast were extremely healthy and strong, because they had the most fertile land in the world. The best diet in world, the eat the best food in the world so many different vegetables and fruits.
Egyptians Greeks and Hebrews love to come and visit North America the East Coast because of all the food and in the South all the citrus plants and trees in abundance. East coast America had beautiful fertile land. so the native people were extremely healthy and the Native American women were at least 6 foot 6 inches tall on the east coast and the men were about 7 ft tall . my great great Cherokee grandfather was 7 ft 2 inches in height and his while family were much taller than Europeans were. When the white Europeans came to east coast America the white men were about 5 ft 6 .
the Cherokee men were much larger and taller and stronger physically, they denser bonesbwhich.made them weigh more and yes natives had scales. Natives were NOT violent, they were NOT salvages, like the white English European man claimed, it is a lie.
Natives only fought for their survival because the English European America government was trying to commit a genocide against the Natives and kill all of them, they had to fight for their lives. Natives were good to the white Europeans , when the white European came to EC America , they didn’t know how to grow the food here, they would have starved to death, it was the Native American women that planted the seed and cultivated the food, they taught the white English people how plant and grow native American food, the food that grew in North America did not grow in England and Europe but Europeans got greedy and fixed native American women to work and be slaves in their own food crops and made them stay in 🌞 sunshine all day, natives did NIT have black skin so they and their children were dropping dead in their food crops then Europeans decided to go on boats and bring back Black skinned people to work in food crops all day. Then white European USA government had Indian removal act , WHICH was A 💀 DEATH WALK. natives in 5 TRIBES were forced to walk from east coast USA over the Mississippi river to Oklahoma , it took 5 months through the winter and multi millions of natives in 5 tribes died. Adolf HILTER would later copy the Evil killings of natives in poor JEWISH pe and CHRISTAIN people in Germany and Europe THE DEATH WALKS, MASSIVE SHOOTINS, MASS GRAVES, STEALING EVERYTHING FROM THE JEWISH AND CHRISTAIN PEOPLE.SONE PEOPLE THINK IT WAS JUST JEWISH PEOPLE , NO, NO, NO, MY GRANDFATHERS THEIR SIBLINGX SND VOUSINS WERE IN WORLD WAR 2 AND WERE PHYSICAL AT SLAVE DEATH ☠️ CAMPS THERE WERE MEN WITH CHRISTAIN CROSS TATOOES ON THEIR UPPER OUTSIDE OF THEIR ÀRMS AND IÑÑER SIDE OF LOWER ARMS.MY AUNTS IN THEIR 90S STILL HAVE PICTURES THEIR FATHERS TOOK OF SLAVE DEATH CAMPS IN EUROPE WITH SLAVES Barely ALIVE, bones and skin, no muscle or fat on their bodies and most had lost all hair on their bodies, they looked like walking dead, the doctors at hospitals in Europe said, the.prisoners were NOT suppose to alive according to medical science knowledge , that is was a MIRACLE THOSE PRISONERS AT THOSE SLAVE DEATH CAMPS WERE STILL ALIVE.
KNOW AND REMEMBER THE ETERNAL. LIVING CREATOR IS STILL PERFORMING MIRACLES EVERYDAY.
THIS IS NOT EDITED .
PLEASE PARDON ME, I AM TOO TRIED AND BUSY TO EDIT THIS . THANK U ALL 🙏
3 April, 2023 at 6:47 am
Look up “Dr. Longo old world florida” on youtube
1 September, 2017 at 11:40 am
When I lived in Washington D.C. I spent a lot of time at Potomac River. I was told that it was named by Indian tribes. When I studied Greek, I learned that the word Potomas means river in Greek. Coincidence?
21 August, 2019 at 4:29 am
Where do Hebrews come into this theory??? As far as I am aware they were never a seafaring people. Why is it that in DNA testing many results show anything from one to four per cent Jewish for people with no contact with Jews or should it denote Semite which includes most of the Middle Eastern peoples.
27 August, 2019 at 9:15 pm
The Hebrews were seafaring people. R. Patai of Princeton has done a lot of work on the Children of Noah. Also, the Phoenicians, their neighbors, were seafaring people. The Bible speaks of their reliance on Hiram, a Phoenician, and his connections with Tarshish (mineral-rich Tartessos in Spain) and voyages to foreign lands. This was about 1000-800 BCE. There were always more Jews (Hebrews) in Egypt and Cyrenaica than in Palestine. The Sea Peoples also included people of Greek and Hebrew derivation (think of the Philistines). The Egyptians were also a seafaring people. A seafaring ship was recovered in the tomb of one of the first pharaohs, Cheops, at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza from around 2500 BCE. The ship is now preserved in the Giza Solar boat museum in Egypt, completely seaworthy. Oars and fittings from early Egypt have been discovered in the old port of Berenice on the Red Sea. During the Ptolemaic period in Egypt (one time point for the incursion of Greek and Hebrew and Phoenician DNA into North America) the pharaohs (who were Greek) had the largest seagoing vessels in history and most advanced maritime technology, including the world’s first analog computer, the famous Antikythera Device discovered in 1910 and extensively studied in the last 20 years. This said, some of the Jewish/Hebrew DNA in Cherokees also comes from Jewish traders of the 17th century. But the Old World Thesis and the Frontier Admixture thesis are not incompatible.
Mary Lois Watts
19 February, 2022 at 7:55 pm
I have done a DNA test through Ancestry and uploaded it to GEDmatch, I was checking the Eurogenes K-13. I found the following:
North_Atlantic 50.8 Pct
Baltic 22.92 Pct
West_Med 14.06 Pct
West_Asian 5.5 Pct
East_Med 2.68 Pct
South_Asian 0.47 Pct
East_Asian 1.06 Pct
Amerindian 2.05 Pct
Oceanian 0.23 Pct
Northeast_African 0.25 Pct
I have traced several of my Ancestors to Native Americans. I have traced my Grandfather (dad’s father) to Chief Oconostota, possibly a Watts who was Cherokee as well as other’s on my dad’s side of the family. My mom also has Native American Ancestor’s and a little bit of Jewish Ancestor (one line that I know of).
I was just wondering what the above numbers mean?
26 October, 2019 at 11:13 am
This is a strange theory. The haploid groups do not collaborate it, however and the continents were already in the formation they are today, making it impossible for Greece and USA – using modern terms – to have been readily influential. However, the guy who first offered up a written language component may have referred to Greek letters a/o words as a source, much as Spanish was based half in Arabic, half in Latin.
Many languages sound like one another and may resemble one another in other ways purely by coincidence, or by the a fact that all humans have the same limited vocal abilities so it’s not unlikely that languages would overlap by chance.
If anything, Greek took from Cherokees.
28 October, 2019 at 10:53 am
It’s not just about linguistic coincidences but also archeological, ethnological, historical and genetic evidence.
5 May, 2021 at 5:47 am
My uncle was informed by 23&me that he has 0.1% Native American and 0.4% Greek & Balkan heritage. They show a Native American segment on Chromosome 5. This DNA test appears to confirm his fathers stories of meeting his part Cherokee great grandfather, Mr. Green, with the long braid down his back.
Could my uncles DNA suggest a confirmation of your theory?
28 January, 2023 at 8:09 pm
A beard is not a Native American man physical charactic.
Most native American men, like Asian men do not grow grow facial or chest hair and Native Americans have very little hair on their bodies if they do it thin soft and sometimes light even blonde hair.
1 April, 2021 at 2:43 pm
I don’t think the Greeks took from Native Americans. However, Greeks traveled by sea for thousands of years, it could be a possibility that the stepped foot on the Americas long before Christopher Columbus stepped foot here. If you look at some of the old pictures of Greek women, you do a double take as they appear Native American. In the end unless there is concrete proof to say otherwise these are only hypothesis no facts.
10 April, 2020 at 8:09 pm
Respectfully, our origin story mentions traveling North from an island, as with the Jewish connection, that has been disproven, genetically; where is the proof/at least drawings/paintings of my ancestors being in these war helmets? As for D.N.A., in general, there is no longer a “pure,” strain of genetics to compare, such as myself having Scottish, Irish, German, English, Dutch, Swedish, Scandinavian, Cherokee, & Chickasaw D.N.A., my father American Indian, & mother purely European. As for ocean-traveling-cultures, there is founded proof the Chinese arrived in their “junks,” as well as Vikings, a Tribe speaking Scandinavian, having fair skin, & non-black/dark hair, yet none having Egyptian based terms, the Yuchi being believed to be the Tribe Sequoyah came from, that Tribe calling itself “Children of The Sun,” sharing similar cultures with South American Tribes, creating mounds, their word “brother,” being “kutani,” as my Cherokee ancestors had the term “Ani Kutani,” meaning “The Kutani,” Kutani not a Cherokee term, showing they were the people who ruled us, falling, corroborated by history, in addition to our story of the fall of the Kutani. The Yuchi giving us many parts of the culture, such as the green corn ceremony, as well as to others, the Yuchi language used by others influenced by them. The Bat Creek stone has also been proven to be a fake; https://www.ohiohistory.org/learn/collections/archaeology/archaeology-blog/2014/may-2014/additional-digging-uncovers-source-of-bat-creek-ho. The Chinese found us, the Cherokee, as told by the story of the Slanted Eye Giants, named after what is now called Bigfoot, coming from the East, looking like our Bigfoot creatures. The Chickasaw influenced, potentially by the Yuchi, having similar words as the Mayans, as the Cherokee have river cane blow guns, & a basket weaving style like that found in South America. The Cherokee, & as the others, do not blow ram horns, per Hebrew culture, nor have stories of Moses, & a completely different flood story, involving a dream with a dog warning a man, rather than Father, as to Moses, coming to him to find those worthy of salvation to start a-new post flood for the sins of man. To those reading my comment, & this website, always, always, even if the site is correct, read the books, (older ones), on our people, & others; I did relatively late, as many, not initially knowing, due to disconnection in the past, as my family members married in, one a couple hundred years, & others a few before forced removal to Oklahoma. Also, the Cherokee, originally, did not eat any animal which would make them like that animal; pigs, called the same as possum, were over weight, dirty, & unhealthy, & so were not eaten for that would make the consumer like a pig, as craw fish were not for it was believed they were burnt by the sun, turning red, & thus having spoiled meat, not due to being not kosher.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHNRf9H7nD4 -on the non-Jewish link, per History Channel.
-Yona Gago Danidgoa
13 October, 2020 at 5:49 pm
We are not being told the truth about our heritage and our ancestors are in the Bible. We assume our ancestors crossed the Bering Strait because “experts” told us so. However, consider the lost tribes of Israel and that it says that God scattered them all over the earth. Consider the parallels between the human sacrifice with the Mayans and Aztecs and Babylonians. Consider the parallels in culture that Natives have that early settlers noticed with Jewish culture. Perhaps the Bering Strait theory is wrong? It takes a great deal of cognitive dissonance to not draw the conclusion that Indians, we, are the Phoenicians. We are the lost tribes of Israel. The DNA does not lie. I’m so tired of the lies. Maybe we Indians can read a history book for once and see where we come from (bible)
The Phoenicians were a mighty people. I think this history is awesome and our people have a right to know. If the “experts” are wrong then they are wrong. Let people know REAL HISTORY! “EXPERTS” my A**!
18 April, 2023 at 7:56 am
Good reasoning, and most fascinating subject that the collective humans must arrive at the Truth, αλήθεια.