African DNA and ‘Out of Africa’

Benn Torres, J. et al. (2007). Mitochondrial and Y chromosome diversity in the English-speaking Caribbean. Ann Hum Genet. 71/6:782-90. 10% of mtDNA and 30% of Y chromosome types are non-African in Afro-Caribbean populations.

Cann, R. L. et al. (1987) Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325: 31-6.
All humans are descended from an African woman who lived 200,000 years ago (“Mitochondrial Eve”).

Chen, Y.S. et al. (1995) Analysis of mtDNA variation in African populations reveals the most ancient of all human continent-specific haplogroups. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57: 133-49.

Collins-Schramm HE, Kittles RA, Operario DJ, Weber JL, Criswell LA, et al. (2002) Markers that discriminate between European and African ancestry show limited variation within Africa. Hum Genet 111: 566–569.

Côrte-Real, H. B. S. M. et al. (1996) Genetic diversity in the Iberian peninsula determined from mitochondrial sequence analysis. Ann Hum Genet 60:331-50.

Destro-Bisol, G. et al. (2004). Variation of Female and Male Lineages in Sub-Saharan Populations: the Importance of Sociocultural Factors. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21/9:1673-82.

Ely, B. et al. (2006). African-American Mitochondrial DNAs Often Match mtDNAs Found in Multiple African Ethnic Groups. BMC Biol 4/34. Because African DNA haplogroups are spread throughout the continent, it is not really possible to infer tribal or regional origins of any given haplotype with any certainty.

Herrnstadt C, Elson JL, Fahy E, Preston G, Turnbull DM, Anderson C, Ghosh SS, Olefsky JM, Beal MF, Davis RE, Howell N. (2002). Reduced-median-network Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the Major African, Asian, and European haplogroups. Am J Hum Genet. 70/5:1152-71.

Horai, S. et al. (1995) Recent African Origin of Modern Humans Revealed by Complete Sequences of Hominoid Mitochondrial DNAs. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 92:532-36. Free full text article.

Ingman M. et al. (2000). Mitochondrial Genome Variation and the Origin of Modern Humans. Nature 408:708-713.

King, T.E. et al. (2007). Africans in Yorkshire? The Deepest-Rooting Clad of the Y Phylogeny within an English Genealgy. European J of Human Genetics 15:288-93.

Krings, M. et al. (1999) mtDNA Analysis of Nile River Valley Populations:  a Genetic Corridor or a Barrier to Migration? Am J Hum Genet 64:1166-76.

Passarino  G. et al. (1998) Different Genetic Components in the Ethiopian Population, Identified by mtDNA and Y-chromosome Polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet. 62(2):420-34. Confirms heavy Caucasoid influence, particularly in Y chromosomal lineages, with 60% of the Ethiopian gene pool having an African origin, whereas 40% is of Caucasoid derivation.

Penny, D. et al. (1995) Improved Analyses of Human mtDNA sequences Support a Recent African Origin for Homo sapiens. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12: 863-82.

Phillipson, D.W. (1993) African Archaeology. 2nd ed. Cambridge UP.

Rosa, A. et al. (2004)  MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region. Annals of Human Genetics 68/4. 94% of Guinean mtDNA lineages belong to L0-L3. The scattering of U haplogroup lineages is attributed to a southward expansion of the Berbers. Free full text article.

Salas, A. et al. (2004). The African Diaspora:  Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Am J Hum Genet. 74(3):454-65

Salas, A. et al. (2005). Charting the Ancestry of African Americans. Am J Hum. Genet. 77/4:676-80.

Salas, A. et al. (2002) The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71:1082-1111. Abstract. Free full text article.

Vigilant, L. et al. (1991) African Populations and the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial DNA. Science 253: 1503-07.

Watson M.R. et al. (1996) mtDNA sequence diversity in Africa. Am J Hum Genet 59:437-44.

Watson, M.R. et al. (1997) Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61: 691-704.