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Do You Know Your European Origins?

Thursday, July 02, 2015

Do You Know Your European Origins by Country?

Review of European DNA Testing

By Donald N. Yates

Most people who buy a DNA test want to know what countries in Europe their ancestors came from. But the favored approaches of major companies like 23andMe have so far not yielded entirely satisfactory results, at least to judge from consumer feedback. This review article explores the reasons for this failing and proposes that DNA Consultants’ EURO DNA database based on forensic population data may be a more accurate measure of nationalities in our background than complicated and expensive microarray genotyping.

Since the beginnings until 1960, over 50 million immigrants settled in what is now the U.S., most of them from Europe. Before 1881, about 86% of the total arrived from northwest Europe, principally England, Wales, ScotlandIreland, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia. Under the New Immigration that followed between 1894 and 1914 immigrants from southern, central and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total. Many of those were Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Romanian and Galician Jews.

Despite their strong European roots, most Americans know little about what nationalities contributed to their family tree. Many families single out one country of origin and ignore others. In the 2013 American Community SurveyGerman Americans (14.6%), Irish Americans (10.5%), English Americans(7.7%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States, forming 38.2% of the total population.

And then there are those who report just being “American." Often of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish and/or Welsh ancestry that they cannot trace, given its predominance in the upper South (such as Kentucky and Tennessee), they amounted to nearly 10% in the 2010 Census, with this trend growing rapidly. Also, according to a Wikipedia article, two-thirds of white Americans have two or more different European nationalities, often four or more, and many "American" respondents may be cases where the person does not think any one ancestry is dominant enough to identify with.


Present-day European countries and major cities (Wikivoyage). Russia east to the Urals and five-percent of Turkey’s landmass fall in Europe. The broadly linguistic regions were similar as early as the sixteenth century and have been reaffirmed by DNA studies: British Isles (lilac), Scandinavia (blue-green), Russia (blue), Baltic (light green), Central Europe (green), Balkans (light blue), Greece and Turkey (purple), Caucasus (violet), Italy (orange), Low Countries (yellow), France (brown) and Iberia (rose).

An important article published last year by geneticists at Harvard and 23andMe drew back the veil on Americans’ European ancestry. It was titled “The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States” and appeared in the prestigious American Journal of Human Genetics. The authors found a higher degree of genetic mixing among all groups than previously suspected. “This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry,” according to the authors Katarzyna Bryc et al.

According to the 23andMe study, African Americans had about one-quarter European genes (Y chromosome studies had put the figure as high as 30%), and some had significant amounts of American Indian ancestry (Oklahoma blacks led the country). Latinos carry an average of 18% Native American ancestry, 65% European ancestry (mostly from the Iberian Peninsula) and 6% African ancestry (compared to 3.5% for European Americans).  

Such fine-scale genetic analysis was made possible by affordable microchip technology involving more than 800,000 SNPs tracked longitudinally through cohort groups. But the analysis did not distinguish between different European ancestries, certainly not on a country-specific scale, and 23andMe’s European results—just as much as Ancestry.com’s or those of other companies using the “genetic strand” approach—have not exactly received a conqueror’s welcome in the ancestry market.

Chronology of European DNA Tests
Foundational to emerging European DNA studies was a 2008 article by Oscar Lao of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rotterdam and co-authors: “Correlation between Genetic and Geographic Structure in Europe.” Current Biology 18/16:  1241-48. This study found that valid and meaningful genetic populations in Europe were defined by linguistic boundaries, which were largely in turn coincidental with modern national borders. This thesis makes sense:  people throughout history have usually married someone nearby who spoke the same language. The work of the late Martin Lucas of DNA Tribes underscored this bedrock population structure, at least on a regional basis, if not a country-specific one.  A burst of studies over the past five years have begun to paint in the genetic histories of various countries, such as England, Ireland and Belgium. Most of these ask for participants with four grandparents of the same local ancestry.

Previous European analyses had been content to match your Y chromosome or mitochondrial type to countries of origin reported by customers. The advantages of autosomal DNA are apparent if one considers that sex-linked tests target only two of your lines (your father’s male line and mother’s female line), whereas if you go back even five generations you have 16 male ancestors and 16 female ancestors (your 3rd great-grandparents). According to uniparental schemes of ancestry I should be 100% English. The diversity and surprising variety come in only if you dig beneath the surface and sift back through the generations.

It is suspected that the results even of “autosomal” (non-sex-linked) testing have not been entirely rid of skewed results and sample biases. The fact that samples often come from medical studies and the purpose of genetic research is largely aimed at medical studies, not ancestry, introduces an unavoidable bias, not to mention the suspicious preponderance of countries like England, German and the U.S. to the detriment of the nations of Eastern and Southern Europe. What about a truly autosomal method that completely ignores the gender of the tested person?  What about a database of European countries that is equal, comprehensive and unequivocal? What about a method that compares you only to Europeans, not European Americans? In short, what about a good European DNA test plain and simple that gives genealogy enthusiasts what they want?

Just such a product is available for under a hundred dollars with the EURO DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants. It forms part of the company’s atDNA autosomal ancestry database, now in version 7.0, released in late June (N = 9,983). Since 2009, we have worked with Professor Wendell Paulson at Arizona State University, Mathematics Department, to develop a 10-loci STR frequency database for European countries/populations, forming part of our DNA Fingerprint Test. The 10-loci are: D81179, D21S11, D3S1358, THO1, D16S539, D21338, D19S433, VWA, D18S51 and FGA. On this basis, we have incorporated data for the following 39 populations from publications or online sources:


Albania/Kosovo (n = 136)

Austria (n = 222)

Belarus (n = 176)

Belgian - Flemish (n = 231)

Belgium  (n = 206)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171)

Croatia (n = 200)

Czech Republic (n = 200)

Denmark (n = 200)

England/Wales (n = 437)

Estonia (n = 150)

Finland (n = 230)

France (n = 208)

France – North (Lille) (n = 200)

France – South (Toulouse) (n = 335)

Germany (n = 662)

Greece (n = 208)

Hungary (n = 224)

Ireland (n = 304)

Italy (n = 209) (Replaced Italy n = 103)

Lithuania (n = 300)

Macedonia (n = 100)

Montenegro (n = 200)

Netherlands (n = 231)

Northern Ireland (n = 207)

Norway (n = 202)

Poland (n = 206)

Portugal (n = 150)

Romania (n = 243)

Russia (n = 184)

Scotland - Highlands (Dundee) (n = 228)

Scotland – Lowlands (Glasgow) (n = 494)

Serbia (n = 100)

Slovakia (n = 247)

Slovenia (n = 207)

Spain (n = 449)

Sweden (n = 424)

Switzerland (n = 402)

Turkey (n = 500)

This covers all European countries of significance in genealogy with the exception of the Ukraine and Latvia. The former appears in the World Matches part of reports, and while we are unaware of strictly Latvian data commensurate with the European standard, the neighboring countries of Estonia and Lithuania are represented in our current list. Minor countries like Iceland and Malta are not included, though data were available for them. The 39-country basis replaces the earlier 22-country basis limited to ENFSI (mostly European Union members) and goes beyond the partially updated Strbase 2.0.

How good is the EURO DNA Test? One customer, Jonah Womack, wrote to us in 2012: 

I just wanted to compliment everyone at DNA consultants. My father had always said our ancestors were from Czechloslovakia, and I was curious enough to put it to the test. Within one week of mailing my sample, I had the answers I was looking for. I was so happy to share the news with my father; the top 3 matches were all from eastern Slovakia. That objective evidence led to him sharing family stories I would have likely never known. All I can say is thank you, and this was money well spent.

With the new version of atDNA 7.0, I naturally raced to input my own DNA profile and check my EURO results. An early analysis with ENFSI (available online since 2004) gave me the following Top Ten results:





















The mystery of Finland and Estonia may be explained by the large Native American admixture in my genes:  recent research has suggested that Finno-Ugric peoples and Native Americans share a wide degree of deep ancestry in the so-called “ghost populations” of Stone Age northeast Europe or Ancient North Eurasians (ANE).[1]

But I was unaware of any Swiss, Swedish or Danish ancestors and felt dissatisfied with the list.

After improvements and additions, my new EURO results look like this:


Scotland - Highlands (n = 228)


England/Wales (n = 437)


Netherlands  (n = 231)


Finland (n = 230)


Estonia (n = 150)


Belgium - Flemish (n = 231)


Scotland - Lowlands (n = 494)


Romania (n=243)


Northern Ireland (n = 207)


Portugal (n = 150)

The listing continues with Italy, Czech Republic and Germany. The median falls between #30 France and # 31 Denmark. This “most on a par with each other with a few extreme outliers” picture seems to suggest that my European origins are a lot more diverse than the Top Ten would indicate. The countries below average frequency were Denmark (n = 200), Croatia (n = 200), Russia (n = 184), Belgium (n = 206), Belarus (n = 176), Austria (n = 222), Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171), Macedonia (n = 100), Lithuania (n = 300). On the face of it, I was less likely to have ancestry in any of these countries, and sure enough, I was not aware of any from my genealogical research. Statistically, I am ten times more likely to have Scottish, English or Dutch ancestry than Macedonian, Bosnian/Herzegovinian or Lithuanian.

DNA Analysis Checked by Surname
I next wanted to see how the top countries tallied with a surname count. Both parents had English surnames (Cooper and Yates), and this seemed to be reflected in the prominent position of England/Wales, while a Scottish grandmother (McDonald) and Dutch grandmother (Goble) seemed to justify Highlands Scotland and the Netherlands. We have already explained Finland. But what about the other countries?

Looking at the surname origins of my thirty-two 3rd-great-grandparents, I obtained the following statistics:

34% Scottish (Mitchell, McDonald, Johnson, Kitchens, Mason, Forester, Pickard, Proctor, Lackey)

25% English/Welsh (Barnes, Yates, Thomas, Goodson, Kimbrell, Cooper, Blevins, Wooten)

13% Dutch (Hooten, Goble, Shankles)

9% Irish (Ellard, Denney)

6% German (Graben, Redwine)

6% Portuguese/Jewish (Storer, Bondurant)

3% Hungarian (Sizemore)

An effective 3% percent, my 3rd-great grandmother Yates, who was a Creek Indian, had no surname. So that accounts for all strains and fits well with the new EURO results. The top three ancestries both in terms of autosomal DNA frequency and my Ahnentafel were Highlands Scottish, English/Welsh and Dutch. These were the most familiar ethnic origins mentioned in family stories and traditions.

Autosomal Population Analysis versus Genetic Strands
Let us compare these EURO results to 23andMe’s tabulation, expressed as percentages instead of a country breakdown ranked by likelihood. First of all, 23andMe has me as 99.2% European, with only 0.4% East Asian and Native American, in contradiction to the 8-25% Native American found in other tests from companies employing a percentage score. Of the 99.2% European, 46.7% is British and Irish—in agreement with my highest-ranked countries according to atDNA (nos. 1 and 7 Scotland, 2 England/Wales, and 9 and 16 Northern Ireland and Ireland).  40.1% is “broadly Northern European. Minor amounts are “broadly Southern European” (0.3%) and “broadly European” (2.8%), while <0.1% is “unassigned.” Of the Northern European, there is 5.3% French and German and 4.0% Scandinavian.

There is an air of scientific certitude about 23andMe’s EURO analysis. The listing of ancestry composition appears comprehensive and exhaustive. It adds up. But it is important to point out that the categories are regional, not country-specific. The only countries mentioned are France and Germany, which are not distinguished but lumped together—a choice that would create consternation in most Frenchmen and Germans. There are obvious flaws and limitations in their data and its interpretation.

One limitation is the special inclusion of “Ashkenazi” (of which I am said to have 0.0%) without a mention of “Sephardic,” historically the more numerous branch of Judaism. The DNA Fingerprint has discrete data for four Jewish populations in the World Populations (Israeli Sephardim, Hungarian Ashkenazi Jews, Chuetas, Majorca), as well as four ethnic markers, one of which is strong in Ashkenazi Jews and the other in Sephardic Jews.

The 23andMe approach could be called the omnium-and-gatherum method, with numerous blind spots. It is not, strictly speaking, evenly valid or consistent. It leaves a good deal lacking in reliability, too. Throughout history, Jews have converted or hidden their ancestry. We cannot expect them to come pouring out in the 21st century to self-identify for DNA surveys even if they retain knowledge of their Jewish past. Yes, perhaps some Ashkenazi Jews will sign up for the program and so identify, but one wonders about a medical motive and bias.

Unsurprisingly, Ancestry.com produced similar results for me—99% European, 0% Native American, with 61% coming from “Great Britain,” 15% Ireland and 0% “European Jewish” (equivalent to 23andMe’s Ashkenazi apparently). Presumably, Ireland comprehends only the country by that name, Northern Ireland being a part of Great Britain, although I have no knowledge of that much Irish in my family tree and Ireland ranks only 16th in my DNA Consultants results. Both Ancestry and 23andMe use high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) from Illumina, involving as many as 800,000 SNPs.

The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip platform is also used in Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder autosomal DNA testing service (which I have not taken). A good description of the microarray process for genotyping technology can be found on a page at 23andMe, with a link to further information on the Illumina website.

In sum, next-generation genotyping technology seems to be accurate enough in assessing the broad picture of your European ancestry, but it is incapable of giving you a country breakdown. Only DNA Consultants’ EURO test, part of its DNA Fingerprint Plus ($279) and available separately for as little as $99, can list and rank the countries of Europe where your ancestors likely originated. It does this not on the basis of genome-wide assessment of hundreds of thousands of SNPs but by comparing your DNA profile to the scores of 10,000 Europeans identified according to 37 actual country names, from Albania to Turkey.

My EURO results matched amazingly well with what I knew from extensive genealogy research about my European forebears, beginning with all the English and Scottish lines right down to minor lines from Portugal and Hungary. With its “false Finnish” match it also indirectly confirmed the Native American ancestry that was evident in abundance in my world matches. Now if I could only find the elusive Romanians (no. 8) in my tree . . . .

[1] Lazaridis, I. et al., “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for the Present-day Europeans." Nature 513/7518{2014):409-13 (known as the Reich article after David Reich of the Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School); A. Seguin-Orlando et al., “Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 years,” Science 346/6213 (2014):1113-1118 (known as the Willerslev study after Eske Willerslev of Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen).


Curious commented on 25-Jul-2015 09:28 PM

I finally took the yDNA and mtDNA tests and a lot of the questions raised by my autosomal tests were answered. I'm R-M269 and H11a, both common European haplogroups. I'm a little more confident about where my ancestors originated; the autosomal test told me where they wandered around, but the haplogroups narrow down their origins some.

I'd punch my numbers into the ENFSI calculator and get some results that're pretty far removed from European origins. But from surfing around the Web I find that R1b really's spread about the globe. That's interesting in itself. I guess people with the I haplogroup would get closest (or closer) full-European results from that calculator. I've gotten a lot of information from Eupedia's site. I imagine that's fairly reliable.

I've sunk some money into all this now; I even took my Neanderthal Index. I'm not indigenous Native American, which I was beginning to believe from my autosomal test. I'm also not haplogroup I, which is said to be closest to true European (right? Wrong?). So this is fun and I'm happy I've gotten to take both the mt and yDNA tests along with the autosomal. One without the other could cause more confusion than the person started out with.

And can't leave out the Neanderthal Index, can we?

Robert Bury commented on 24-Sep-2015 11:03 PM

In my Family Finder DNA about 10% of my 800 matches are from people who have identified themselves as Jewish, Levite, or have Jewish names. All of theses people have at least 5 cM. segments on the 16th chromosome at the far right side. Is this a common segment for Jewish DNA?

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Destination Europe

Monday, August 18, 2014

European Populations in the DNA Fingerprint Ancestry Test

In the days before standardization of railway gauges, passengers were sometimes obliged to get out of the railcar when the tracks reached a border and climb aboard a waiting train on the next set of rails, which were broader or narrower in design.

An analogy is being able to fly to certain destinations only with a connecting flight. Unfortunately, because the U.S. and Europe follow different standards for reporting DNA profiles, the same situation applies in ancestry testing.

All DNA Consultants' results are based on published studies. The two main forensic conventions are those of the FBI (CoDIS) and Europe (ENFSI). The two standards are as different as electricity at 120 volts (U.S.) and 220 (Europe).  No one converter will plug in at your hotel room in Boston and Brussels.

When we have data that conforms exclusively to one standard or another, we cannot make up the missing values or "fudge" comparisons. There are no direct flights from Phoenix to Rome.

Introduced in May of 2013, DNA Consultants' new method for giving customers matches to countries of Europe where they may have ancestry underwent some enhancements to overcome these problems as of August 15 of 2014.

All full DNA Fingerprint reports now specify European results in several different ways, while the $99 EURO report will only give one result (no. 3, ENFSI).



Possible Matches


Top 50 world populations out of 450 all together

9 Core CoDIS Markers

181 European populations, e.g. Russia - Pskov (n=62)


Top 20 extended EURO populations without other world populations

10 ENFSI standard markers derived from all published sources

71 populations, e.g., Romania - Dobruja (n = 569)


Top 10 core European countries belonging to European Union*

10 ENFSI standard markers actually reported by ENFSI

24 populations, e.g. England/Wales (n = 437)


Top 10 Megapopulations out of 22

9 Core CoDIS Markers

10 European megapopulations, e.g. Mediterranean European


Map of World Ancestry

9 Core CoDIS Markers

Intensity of green shows strength of match, as before


Certificate of Testing

Combined methods

Your ENFSI matches appear in right column, your megapops in left


Ancestry Certificate

Your Personalized Report

Any population, megapopulation or ethnic marker can be displayed

As for special certificates ordered after you get your report, the match you specify must appear in the top world, European or ethnic panel results in your personal ancestry analysis. If it does, it will be reproduced exactly according to the nomenclature adopted from the original study, e.g. Italian, Filipino, Sub-Saharan African, East Asian. Customers may choose between American Indian or Native American, whichever they prefer. Only one population match per certificate! Available in hard copy exclusively.

(*) Note:  Nineteen of the European Union's 27 countries are included in official ENFSI data:




Czech Republic+










North Ireland











Those countries marked with a + are also included in our world data on a different basis (CoDIS).

Omitted from official ENFSI calculations either because they have not been sampled by ENFSI itself or are not in the European Union are:


















Almost all of these countries are covered in our world data (using the CoDIS standard). For instance, Greek - Northern (n = 318) or Lithuania - Vilnius (n=140).

Included with ENFSI populations are two countries that are not members of the European Union:



Between one dataset or another, a customer can find at least one match for any country on the modern map of Europe they might have exotic ancestry in, even Cyprus, Malta, Iceland and Turkey, which are often grouped with Europe. Bulgaria and Ukraine, for which no data at all are available, are estimated by neighboring populations across their borders.

Remember, multiple matches do not mean multiple ancestry! For instance, if you get 10 matches to Spanish/Portuguese, that does not necessarily mean you have 10 times the amount of that ancestry than if you received only one match.

The converse is also true. Many Americans are looking for confirmation of Irish ancestry, but there are only two sets of data for Ireland:  Ireland (n=300) and Northern Ireland (n=207). Setting aside neighboring populations like Scotland/Glasgow (n=494) and England/Wales (n=437), your Irishman or Irishwoman thus only gets two "lottery tickets" to enter in the Irish Sweepstakes. If Ireland or Northern Ireland comes up, its significance is not diminished by its sole appearance since there are only two possibilities available.

We wish you didn't have to carry an electrical adapter kit for European travel, but as stated above, we can't change the conventions any more than we can change the time zones. 


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Daniel Defoe, Jew

Monday, May 26, 2014
Author's Famous Chair Preserved by Quakers Tells All

A chapter in the new book from McFarland The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales: A Genetic and Genealogical History (April 29, 2014) proposes on the basis of original genealogical research by Donald Yates that Daniel Defoe (in engraving), the author of Robinson Crusoe, came from an old Sephardic Jewish family, the De Foas. 

If that is true he deserves a place as the forerunner among a galaxy of Jewish novelists and masters of world literature that includes Sholom Aleichem, Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, Franz Kafka, Isaac Singer, Arthur Koestler, Herman Wouk, Mordecai Richler, Norman Mailer, Stefan Zweig, Nathaniel West, Sidney Sheldon, Muriel Spark and Leon Uris. Many literary critics consider Defoe the inventor of the modern novel.

Judge for yourself from the opening paragraphs of "Daniel Defoe and Robinson Crusoe." Note, in addition to Defoe, Foe and Foa, the names Annesley, Devereux, Fall, King, Maxwell, Levitt, Job, Wells, Raleigh, Grenville (now Granville), Champernoun, Gilbert, Drake, St. Leger, Zouche, Hawkins, Phoebus, Foix and Carew. Clues for your genealogy!

From The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales, by Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman and Donald N. Yates (Jefferson:  McFarland, 2014).

Much is known about Daniel Defoe, the creator of the first English novel Robinson Crusoe, originally published in 1719. But as the scholar John Richetti remarks in his biography, much is also unknown. “Despite several centuries of literary and biographical criticism . . . and of repeated biographical investigation . . . the inner man, the personality, the actual Defoe, remains an elusive and even a mysterious figure.”[i] In this chapter, we intend to show that Defoe’s ancestry was Jewish and that many of his social concerns, religious beliefs, attitudes, activism and artistic aspirations were those of a self-conscious British Jew of the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

            The author’s family name was Foe, at least in its latest manifestation.[ii] Daniel added what his detractors referred to as a “Frenchified aristocratic prefix” in 1695, when he was a young man in his thirties. It was a time shortly after he had become established in his business career as owner of a Dutch brick factory in the town of Tilbury in Essex.[iii] The facts of Daniel Defoe’s genealogy are set forth in the adjoining chart. The first mystery we are confronted with is the absence of a birth record. He was the third child and only son of James Foe, a merchant and citizen of London living with his wife Ailce[iv] in the Broad Street Ward of Cripplegate (also called Jew’s Gate), a commercial district in the heart of the Old City, today’s Barbican Center. Jewin Street, now covered by Defoe House, was the only place where Jews were allowed to be buried. Daniel’s two older sisters were Mary, born 1657, who would marry Francis Barham and later the natural philosopher Robert Davis, and Elizabeth, who would become the wife of James A. Maxwell, a Quaker. Both siblings have birth records, but the parish register of St. Giles Cripplegate lists their births in a distinct manner as “borne but not christened.”[v] Biographers and commentators are at pains to explain the reason why, or to suggest an explanation for their brother’s lack of a birth record. The precise birthdate of September 30, 1660 sometimes given for Daniel Defoe is based on a chain of conjectures from his fiction and not on actual records.[vi]  We can only be sure that he was born in 1660, a pivotal year marked by the return of Charles II and end of the Cromwellian period.

            Of Daniel Defoe’s ancestry, most writers today are content to say that his grandfather was a yeoman farmer from the little village of Etton in the East Midlands, and that the Foes can be traced back to sturdy rural English stock. That this is not the whole story, however, is suggested by some of the names in the Foe family tree. To begin with, Daniel was not an ordinary English given name in the time when the author’s grandfather Daniel Foe was born, in 1598, not in his grandson’s day either. In the nineteenth century it was still so distinctly Jewish that George Eliot used it for the title character of her novel Daniel Deronda about an English gentleman who gradually awakens to the fact of his Sephardic Jewish ancestry and becomes a Zionist. Rose, the name of Daniel Defoe’s grandmother, is also Jewish.[vii] We do not know her maiden name, but after the death of her first husband Rose Foe married Solomon Fall of Maxie, Northamptonshire  (Jewish first and last name), and after being widowed again in 1641, she moved to Huntingdon, where she married Thomas King, a widower with two children, one of whom became the wife of her eldest son Daniel in 1643.[viii] Daniel Jr. died on the family farm in Etton in 1647, but his older brother Henry went to London and became the apprentice of the saddler John Levitt (“Levite”). James, Rose’s youngest son by her first marriage to Daniel Foe, born 1630, followed Henry to the city at the age of fourteen and was apprenticed as a chandler to the same John Levitt, a member of the Butchers’ Company trade guild.[ix]

            Defoe wrote in one instance that his grandfather was a country gentleman who rode to the hounds, giving the good ones names from one political party and the bad ones names from the opposite faction. He also boasted an armorial device with three griffons. But at the same time, he claimed kinship with Sir Walter Raleigh, the quintessential crypto-Jew.[x] Biographers have been eager to validate his assertions about his grandfather, Daniel Foe, but skeptical of the Raleigh connection. If true, says one of them, “the strain must have been thin indeed by the time of Defoe’s birth.”[xi] Yet only a little over a century separated the Elizabethan Protestant explorer-courtier from the enigmatic journalist and author of Robinson Crusoe. Moreover, the chronicles of the Raleighs, Grenvilles (now Granvilles), Champernouns, Gilberts, Drakes, St. Legers, Zouches, Hawkins and Carews were by no means finished.

            A clue to Defoe’s real ancestry emerged in the nineteenth century when a descendant in America came forward with a family heirloom described as the chair in which Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe. We will tell this charming story in the words of Joseph T. Richards as reported by local historian of Cecil County, Maryland, Alice E. Miller. This writer starts by recounting the history of Blue Ball, an old inn near the Quaker site of Brick Meeting House. Andrew Job established it about 1710 and went to Philadelphia, returning with a bond-servant, Elizabeth Maxwell, the runaway niece of the novelist Daniel Defoe.

          The Story of Elizabeth Maxwell

Until she was eighteen, Elizabeth lived in London. Her mother was born Defoe. She was the sister of Daniel. The brother’s desire to reform the realm by writing pamphlets criticizing Her Majesty’s Government got him into trouble. To escape arrest in 1705, he fled to Mrs. Maxwell’s home and lived in seclusion for years.

His niece, Elizabeth, became his pupil from her fifth year, and enjoyed her uncle’s company and stories. When she was eighteen, she became engaged to a young man of whom her mother did not approve. The bar to their marriage made the girl despondent and she felt that she must cut herself off from all of her accustomed association with her friends. After a few months of this isolation, Elizabeth heard that a ship was about to set sail for America from a wharf near her home. Without a word to anyone, she ran aboard just in time and was off. After long weeks on the voyage, she made port in Philadelphia.

Such unceremonious passage as this was not unusual in those days, apparently, and these young people did not hesitate to sell themselves as bond servants to those who paid their passage money. So Elizabeth and a group of her fellow passengers came up for sale soon after landing. In the crowd around the auction block she saw a man wearing a broad-brimmed hat of the Quakers. She had known these people at home to be kindly, and so she asked this man to pay her passage money and to take her as a servant for the required seven years.

This man was Andrew Job. He had five sons, but no daughters. His wife needed help in her housekeeping. So Andrew paid Elizabeth’s fare, and started home with her. He lived at East Nottingham, some fifty-five miles away . . . near the Brick Meeting House, now the village of Calvert. . . .

Elizabeth served out her seven years, but during all that time she did not write home. At the end of her time of service, she married one of the five sons, Thomas Job . . . . Then she wrote home, telling her mother the whole story.

Months passed. Finally a letter from Uncle Daniel. Then she learned that her mother’s anxiety for her safety could never be satisfied, for she had died years earlier.

Her uncle told her further that by her mother’s will ‘in case she should ever be found alive’ she was to have a good property and her mother’s furniture. Daniel said that he would send the furniture to her and asked that she preserve it carefully, because it had ‘come to the family from their Flemish ancestors who had sought refuge under the banner of Queen Elizabeth from the tyranny of Phillipe [sic].’

He went on to apologize for the wooden seats in the two chairs, explaining that he had worn out the cane seats and had replaced them with wooden ones.

It is interesting to know that at least one of these chairs is still to be seen at Nottingham . . .

The eighty-year-plus-old man telling this amazing tale ends by speculating that Defoe’s loneliness after his niece’s sudden flight may have set his mood for writing Robinson Crusoe in 1719.[xii]  The Defoe chair passed into the keeping of the Historical Society of Delaware, and a longer version of its provenance appeared in Scribners Monthly in 1876.[xiii]

            What we learn from this lore is that the original Foe family was not English, but “Flemish.” If the founding forefather joined the forces of the Protestant English campaigning against the Catholic king Phillip II, this was probably at the beginning of the Anglo-Dutch War when Elizabeth I sent Robert Dudley to lift the siege of Antwerp by the Duke of Parma in the summer of 1585. Droves of Sephardic Jews in exile from Spain and Portugal in Flanders took the side of the English, Dutch and French, leading eventually to the independence of the Netherlands and the partition of Flanders between Catholics and Protestants. Daniel’s eponymous ancestor Jacobus de Foe, born 1578, was undoubtedly one of these new Flemings sworn to resistance against the Spanish. The family name, we believe, was Foa, an armigerous Sephardic line named for their ancient seat of Foix in the Aquitaine region of France.[xiv] Defoe apparently even alludes to this ancestry, tongue in cheek, when he writes of noble descent from “the De Beau Faux.”[xv] Defoe’s editor Henry Morley mentions it in attempting to account for Defoe’s fluent foreign language capacities and business trips: “He had connections in Spain, and it may even be that his family had Spanish origins, and at some former time had anglicised the name of Foà into Foe.”[xvi]

            Curiously, Defoe’s enemies accused him of being Dutch. John Tutchin fired off the dunce’s poem called “The Foreigners” in 1701 aimed at William III’s favorites Hans Willem Bentinck, first earl of Portland, and Arnold Joost van Keppel, first earl of Albemarle. In it, he represented England as Israel, with its autocratic Stuart monarch “all their Plagues . . . crammed in the Single Person of a King,” and Holland a country lying “due east from Judah’s Shoar . . . Its Natives void of Honesty and Grace, A Boorish, rude, and an inhumane Race . . . born in Bogs.”

Let them in foreign States proudly command,

They have no Portion in the Promis’d Land,

Which immemoriably has been decreed

To be the Birth-right of the Jewish Seed.

Evidently, in this political allegory, Scotland and Ireland are the realm of Hiram and the Phoenicians, “ye Jewish Nobles” are the English peerage, and Sanhedrins are the Houses of Parliament. The Puritan doctrine of equating the destiny of the British with that of the people of Israel was so engrained by this time that it passed for an article of political faith. But the radical Whigs were probably not prepared for what came from the pen of a verifiable Jew. Defoe responded with “The True-Born Englishman:  A Satire,” lampooning the very notion of any purity of race. This effort won him a stipend from the king and led to his being tapped as a secret agent by Robert Harley, earl of Oxford. Defoe even adopted “True-Born Englishman” as his ironic nom de plume, publishing his collected works to date under that name in 1703 and 1705.

            Defoe’s existing portraits are highly burnished, revealing little about his appearance other than a pronounced sharp nose. But a “wanted” description put out after one of his skirmishes with the law paints a distinctly foreign picture of him:

He is a middle Sized Spare Man about 40 years old, of a brown Complexion, and dark brown coloured Hair wears a Wig, a hooked Nose, a sharp Chin, grey Eyes, and a large Mould near his Mouth, was born in London, and for many years was a Hose Factor in Freeman’s-yard in Corn hill, and now is Owner of the Brick and Pantile Works near Tilbury-Fort in Essex.[xvii]

From Defoe’s genealogy readers will also notice that his first naturalized English ancestor Jacobus de Foe marries Wilson Annesley. She must have been a member of the distinguished Nottinghamshire family of that name. The pedigree includes Robert Annesley, high constable of Newport, Buckinghamshire; his son the English and Irish statesman Francis Annesley, 1st Viscount Valentia; Charles II’s Keeper of the Privy Seal Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey (1614 –1686); and most fittingly Defoe’s family pastor, Samuel Annesley (1620? – 1696),  a prominent Dissenter, from the Warwickshire branch. Samuel Annesley served as chaplain to Robert Rich, the earl of Warwick, son of the first earl and Lady Rich, Penelope Devereux, countess of Devon, sister of Robert Devereux and the “Stella” of Sir Philip Sidney’s love poetry. Annesley came, then, from a carefully endogamous set of forbears. Contemporaries called him “an Israelite indeed.”[xviii]

The designation Dissenter had a loose—and shifting—meaning. Today, we might apply the term Presbyterian to the majority of seventeenth century Dissenters. But when it first came into usage the word described those, like Annesley, who feared that the 1662 Act of Uniformity introduced by Charles II would lead to a suppression of Scripture for private devotion, as well as  disenfranchisement of all but Church of England adherents in public office. The new monarch flirted with absolutism in religion as in politics. With non-conformists panicking, Defoe was made by Pastor Annesley to copy the entire Bible by hand.  Looking back in middle age, he wrote in a characteristically flippant manner:

How many Honest but over-frighted People, set to Work to Copy the Bible into Short-Hand, lest when Popery come in, we should be Prohibited the use of it, and so might secure it in little Compass? At which Work, I my self then, but a Boy, work’d like a Horse till I wrote out the whole Pentateuch, and then was so tyr’d, I was willing to run the Risque of the rest.[xix]

Is Defoe being less than disingenuous here? One wonders if there might not be more to the fact that he stopped with the part of the Bible that constituted the Hebrew Torah, which would have sufficed the needs of a crypto-Jewish congregation.

            Defoe lived, and wrote, dangerously, and he defied anyone to look into his conscience. Before the novel  Robinson Crusoe appeared in 1719, his best-known publication was the The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702). This pamphlet parodied extremist Anglican views and was conceived in the same spirit as Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal. Just as Swift was to suggest that a solution to the economic troubles of the Irish lay in poor families selling their children as food to rich gentlemen and ladies, Defoe urged leaders of the Church of England to adopt the simple expedient of forced mass emigration and selective execution of Dissenters. If anyone disagreed with the Queen, it was obvious what must be done:  “Those of the contrary Opinion to Hers, must be Extirpated, must be cut off Root and Branch; and like the Jews by Edward the First’s Sanguinary Laws, Dispers’d, Banish’d, and Kill’d; and render’d Extinct they and their Posterity.” Defoe extended the same logic to Occasional Dissenters, the “Apples” swimming merrily downstream with the “Horse-Turds.”

It was a satirical ruse that backfired. The high-toned Anglicans and Tory members of Parliament were not amused. They burnt Defoe in effigy, swore out a warrant for his arrest and appointed a vicious special prosecutor. As John Richetti wrote of the incident:

From the appearance of that pamphlet Defoe is in nearly constant dialogue with his enemies, and his work is a series of fierce polemics, ferocious attacks and counter attacks. Defoe is an author whose life was changed by one piece of writing. . . . Defoe became a wanted man who was forced for the rest of his life to survive mainly as an embattled writer and political operative rather than a prosperous merchant and manufacturer who dabbled in writing . . . . Defoe would return obsessively to the misunderstandings of his writing that landed him not once but twice in jail and once in the pillory, and his polemical journalism, notably the Review, would be to an important extent based on a continuing complaint, a life-long grievance, that he was misunderstood and misrepresented by both friends and enemies.[xx]

[i] John Richetti, The Life of Daniel Defoe (Malden:  Blackwell, 2005) vii-viii.

[ii] Variants, some dubious, appear to be Fow, Fowe, Fohe, Fohee, Faeoe, Foy, Fay, Foye, Fooe and Fou. Reaney and Wilson have no entry for either Foe or Defoe. Excellent information on Foe’s origins and writings can be found in the article on him in the Dictionary of National Biography written by its first editor Sir Leslie Stephen, vol. 5 (London:  Oxford UP, 1921) 730-43.

[iii] Richetti 18.

[iv] The name of Defoe’s mother is so spelled in the only records mentioning her, though biographers usually take this as a parish clerk’s error and “normalize” it to Alice. Ailsey is a Jewish name.

[v] Maximillian E. Novak, Daniel Defoe, Master of Fictions. His Life and Ideas (Oxford:  Oxford UP, 2001) 20-21.

[vi] See, for instance, Sheldon Rogers, Notes & Queries 56.2 (2009) 226-28.

[vii] Roza was very popular among Sephardic women; see Gorr 80-81.

[viii] Novak 14.

[ix] Ibid 17-18.

[x] Jews and Muslims 10-15.

[xi] Novak 19.

[xii] Alice E. Miller, Cecil County, Maryland, A Study in Local History (Elkton:  C&L, 1949) 150-53.

[xiii] Mary E. Ireland, “The Defoe Family in America,” Scribners Monthly 12 (1876) 61-64.

[xiv] DSS 260, with branches in Rome, Bari, Busseto, Borgotaro, Colorno, Genoa, Venice, Asti, Milan, Napoli, Pisa, Varesa, Ivrea, Trieste, Florence, Turin, Parma, Alexandria, Lucca, Leghorn, Reggio Emilia, Casale Monferrato, Modena, Paris, Bordeaux, Marseille, Amsterdam, Tunisia, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo and New York. Foix was the capital of a province of the same name, now the département of Ariége just south of Toulouse, the seat of Machir the Exilarch and center of southern French Jewry. “In the Middle Ages, one finds a number of Jews in the county of Foix and particularly at Pamiers, where they were treated with high regard by the local rulers and officials of the Church” (Gross, Gallia Judaica 438-439). Queen Katherine’s aunt, Eleanor of Aragon, married Gaston IV de Foix (she had other Jewish ancestry as well). Following the expulsion of Jews from France, the count of Foix pleaded to be allowed to keep the Jews, a scenario that occurred as far back as the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name was pronounced Po-eesh and in the Provencal language “Foish”; in other words the final consonant was sounded, distinguishing it from the word foi. Our favorite whipping boy Reaney and Wilson notes several occurrences in England (including John Foys, 1359, Devon) but derives all from Old French foi “faith,” despite the fact that foi has no s (DES 176). The last count of Foix, also king of Navarre, Francis Phoebus, had a Jewish name which may point to the true origin of the place-name Foix,  instead of the apocryphal St. Faith.  

[xv] Novak 19.

[xvi] The Earlier Life and the Chief Earlier Works of Daniel Defoe, ed. Henry Morley (London:  Routledge, 1886) 17.

[xvii] Richetti 22.

[xviii] Paula R. Backschneider, Daniel Defoe. His Life (Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins UP, 1989) 13.

[xix] Richetti 3.

[xx] Ibid 20. 


Brant Boucher commented on 29-May-2014 09:58 PM

I am reading the book in question above and find it quite interesting and informative. The authors over-state their case, perhaps, but I do not doubt that the basic thesis is sound, namely that there were many Jews and Muslims in the UK during the period under study and that many well-known names originated as crypto-Jews or crypto-Muslims.

I have an extensive and increasingly deep genealogy with some known and unquestionable Jews in the distant past (before Charlemagne) and which includes many of the authors alleged crypto-Jews and Muslims more recently (in the Middle Ages. (Example: Sir Walter Raleigh's family)

But I am skeptical of claims based solely on first names. For example, Jacobius might very well be another James (there being many Saint James to choose from when naming your Christian child). Many of my non-crypto Jewish ancestors are recorded in English parish records with latinized versions of their first names as recently as the 1700s. Many of these are from Yorkshire.

Family names are also weak evidence. There is a Dutch name Voe and many Amercans named Dafoe or Defoe or Devoe, and most of these seem to be Swiss, Dutch or German, possibly even Amish or Mennonite.

Just because a surname originated as a Jewish name doesn't mean Jewish culture and religion survived past the conversion. Some simply abandoned their faith. Yes, many Christians and Muslims were and are crypto-Jews and still practice many customs and religious rites of their ancestors privately. This is especially true in Spain, Portugal and their colonies where the Inquisition was still active as late as the early 1800s.

DNA would greatly assist in distinguishing long converted Jewish lineages from genuine crypto-Jews still preserving some of their customs and Jewish faith.

My own Y chromosome is of Middle Eastern origin but it is a puzzle to me how to prove I got it from Jews because it had already reached Europe 12,000 years ago and Judaism is usually thought to be about 4,000 years old. While the Jewish religion was in a formative state, these Middle Easterners were bringing agriculture to Scotland and Scandinavia. And if you mean modern Judaism, the Talmud reached Europe just before the time of Charlemagne but took about 200 years to "take" among already long established French Jews, let alone the alleged crypto-Jewish descended from Jewish traders spread across Europe under the Roman Empire; Muslim traders who spread themselves without a Roman Empire; and Phoenicians or others who are virtually indistinguishable from their distant cousins of Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Samaritan, Assyrian or other religious heritage.

The authors have a solid premise I believe but their evidence is extremely shaky in most cases. They keep forgetting they are supposed to be skeptical of their own evidence.

I suggest somebody find living male line descendants of Defoe if they can and test them to establish whether he has a so-called "Jewish or Muslim" haplogroup and where and when it originated. It could be thousands of years too old to be Jewish in any way, shape or form.

After much research, I am convinced my own Y chromosome has been on the road a long time from its origins tens of thousands of years ago in the common African home of mitochondrial Eve and Y Chromosome Adam.

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Was Your Colonial Forebear Jewish?

Monday, April 21, 2014

One of the remarkable suggestions in our book Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (McFarland 2012) was that both the First Families of Virginia and Pilgrim Mothers and Fathers of Massachusetts included many colonists of Jewish ancestry (usually Sephardic). There were, in fact, Jews, ex-Jews and crypto-Jews (and Muslims and crypto-Muslims) hidden in the ship passenger lists and early tax rolls of all thirteen colonies, with Georgia (chapter 9) proposed to be the "most Jewish." 

We give here the index from that book, the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes next month with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales:  A Genetic and Genealogical History. 

Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? It is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and presented themselves as Christian. In future blogs, we will reproduce other colonist roisters from the appendices of the book, which cover Virginia to Georgia. Below is the master index to page numbers, which does not pick up every single name but does note any name discussed or mentioned in the body of the text. 

Abbadie  150

Abbey  68

Abdelloe  178

Abel/Abell 66, 116

Abennomen  165

Abercorn  165

Abercromby  147

Aberdaun  165

Aberdeen  51, 58, 170, 182

Aboab  39

Abraham/Abrahams  117-18, 132, 134

Abrahamsen  91

academies  186

Acker/Ackerman  112

Acker/Acre  114, 116

Acosta  103

Ada  177

Adair  36, 136-38, 146, 160

Adams/Addams   43, 66, 67, 103, 111, 124, 185

Adar  175

Adel/Adela  177

Adela  177

Adelaide  177

Adeline  155, 177

Aden  171

Adjai  167

Adkins  36, 137

Adye  167

Aegler  118

Agar  66

Aguilar  35

Ahiman Rezon, The  185

Aithcock  51

Alabama  161, 188

Alamza  154

Albany  83, 92, 96-98

Albigensians  114, 181

Albright  117, 121

Alcade  178

Aleef/Alif  124

Alen, van  100

Alexander  36, 43, 80, 90, 98, 100, 111, 187

Alfari/Alferry  117

Algeier  116

Algeria  116, 164

Alida  100

aliyah  79

Alkabetz, Shlomo Halevi  68

Allee/Ali  124

Alleman  118

Allen  43, 116, 147

Almora  30

Alpheus  185

Alsace-Lorraine  114, 118, 151, 160, 166

Amadas, Philip  14, 23,  47

Amaker  146

Amatis  163

Ames  67, 111, 114

Amesbury, Mass.  78, 81

Amir  70, 185

Amish  114, 119

Amma  114

Amman  114, 119

Ammon  see  Hammon

Amory  146

Amos  67

Amsterdam  65, 83-91, 141

Anatta  117

Anderson  162

Andover, Mass.  70

Andrews/Andrus  40, 43, 53

Andronicus  67

Ane, de  185

Angelo  134

Anglo-Saxon  60, 99

Angola Neck  124

Annon  132

Ansegisele  177

Anthon/Anthony  13, 55, 91

Antill  99

Antwerp  85

Apollonius of Tyana  179

Apunkshunnubbee  161

Aquila  125, 128

Aquitaine  141

Arabia  117

Arabic  154

Araminta  125

Aras  112

Arawak Indians  31

Arbell, Mordecai  29, 40-41, 85, 169

Arbo  117

Arcajah  154

Archelaus  171

Archer, Gabriel  51

Aree/Arey  124

Aretas  77

Argall, Samuel  52

Armor  111

Arnau  43

Arnaut  91

Arnett  186

Arnold  100; Benedict  116, 184

Arnulf of Herstal  177

Arrobas  169

Arthur  167, 178

Arundel   23, 47

Asahal  171

Ascham, Roger  21

Ascough  11

Asenith/Seneth  155

Ash/Ashe  76, 116, 186

Ashcom  132

Ashfield  99

Ashler  118

Ashley  129

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony  145, 162

Ashmole, Elias  21, 173-75, 177-79, 181, 185, 186

Ashmolean Museum  173

Ashmore  167

Ashton  116

Asians  28, 33

Askew  111

Astor:  103; John Jacob 56

Athelstone  175

Athens  117

Athias  40

Atkin  58

Attakullakulla  148, 163

Attia  174

Aubry  47

Augusta, Ga.  162, 165, 169-70

Augustein  118

Austin  36, 77, 126, 148

Austria  119

Auvergne  140

Avarilla  171

Averroism  14

Avicenna  181

Avignon  141

Avila  30, 147

Ayllon, de  144

Aymand  147

Aynon  175

Ayr  142

Ayrault  142

Ayres  126

Azariah  155

Azikiwe, Nnamdi  5

Azores  15, 28-29

Aztec Indians 33-34

Baasz  112

Babylon  24

Babylonian  140

Baca  34

Bacchus  175, 177

Backhouse  177

Backshell  167

Bacon:  181, Francis  179-180

Bacquencourt, de  151

Badenooon  165

Baeck  128

Baecksel  167

Bagge  117

Baggett  36

Bagley  111

Bagnall  68

Bagoh  178

Bagot  178

Bagsell  54

Bailleux, de  150

Bailly  150

Bain  170

Baldwin/Baudoin  116

Ball  43, 57, 186

Ballard  66

Baltimore  123, 136-37

Bamberg  166

banks 74

Banos  30

Baptists  68, 166

Barak  117; see also Baruch

Baram  53

Barbados  41, 55, 86, 95-96, 99, 132, 145

Barbalha  142

Barbauld  142; see also Barbo

Barbeaux  167

Barberie  97

Barbero, Alessandro  177

Barbo  167

Barbot  143

Barentsen  91

Barfoot  51

Barksdale  167

Barlow, Arthur  14, 16, 47

Barnard  167

Barne/Barney  19, 66, 125, 128

Barnes  137, 179

Barnett  42, 43, 100

Baron/Barron  118

Barr  114, 118

Barratt  185

Barre  150

Barrett 18, 43, 184

Barriers  137

Barrow  68

Barruck  127, 150

Barry  111

Barsham  67

Bartholomaeie  112

Barton  143

Baruch/ Baroch  68, 109, 114, 116, 167

Basanier, Martin  46

Basque  178

Bass/Basse  53, 67, 185

Bassett  68, 70

Bat  112

Batista  30

Batt  110

Batz  150

Bavaria  166

Bayer, Henry G.  89

Bayley  150

Bayly/Bailey  111

Bayonne  141

Bazill/Basil  134, 143

Bea/Bee  91, 148

Beale  148

Beamer/Beamor  170

Bean  170

Beares/Bears  112

Beauchamp  63, 68, 126

Beaudel  161

Bechtelll  117

Beck  128

Bedat, du  152

Beekman  97-98, 103

Beford  162

Begga  177

Beit Shean  185

Belcastel  150

Belcher  181

Belgians  89

Belitha  162

Bell  51, 78, 138

Bella/Bellah  115

Bellew  23

Bellington  108

Belmonte/Bellomont  95, 103

Ben Israel, Menasseh  9, 29, 39, 47, 84

Benamour  170

Benarus, Luna  29

Bendal  67

Bender  118

Benejah  171

Benetez  28

Benham  67

Benison  167

Benitez  31

Benjamin  97, 132, 178

Bennett  53, 184

Benoni  132

Bensalem  181

Bensaudes  29

Bentzel  114

Benzet  117

Benzien  117

Benzion  117

Berbers  26-27, 39, 117, 128, 153, 167

Berenson  91

Beriah  67

Berkeley  53

Berkshire County, Pa.  116

Bermejo, Juan Rodriguez  8

Bernal  31

Bernard  143

Bernard/Bernhard  41, 167

Berry  80

Bertonneau  143

Besly  143

Bessor  179

Beth Elohim Congregation  157

Bethany  170

Bethel  116

Bethencourt, Juan de  27

Bethia  78

Bethlehem  174

Bethulia  111

Betton  185

Beverhoudt, van  168

Beverley, Robert  56

Beverly, Mass.  70

Bevis Marks  164, 188

Bey  89

Bicker  86

Bidardike  112

Biddle  103

Biggs  53

Bilhah  184

Billington  106

Birchum/Berghoum  155

Bird/Byrd  55-57, 85, 95, 99, 104

Birmingham  125

Bises/Beziz  178

Black  85

Black Dutch  161

Black Fox  120, 137, 187

Black Irish  161

Blackall  96

Blackheaded Cooper, chief  188

Blackwell  43

Blaeu, Joan  84

Blair  184

Blakiston  134

Blanchan  89

Blanchard  185

Bland  77

Blandford-Bute Lodge  185

Blaquire  150

Blatser  100

Bless  114

Blessing  70

Blevins  36, 137, 171

Bloom  94

Bloomart  86

Bluett  53

Blum  115

Boas  179, 184

Bodell  161

Bogomils  114

Bohun, Lawrence, Dr.  52

Boileau  150

Bois, du  88

Boleyn   20

Bolivar  125

Bomonzore  178

Bon  125

Bond  186; see also Bondi

Bondi/Biondi  162

Bondurant  170

Boniten  47

Bonneau  146

Bonnell  150

Bonney  79

Bono  125

Book of Creation, The  179

Boone  6, 36, 40, 51, 52, 56, 120, 125, 136, 137, 148, 161, 171-72, 186

Booth  132

Boozer  146

Bordeaux  141, 146, 150

Borden  99

Borges  47, 167

Borough/Boroughs  51, 150

Bose, du  146

Bosomworth  167

Boston  82

Boude  186

Boudinot  91, 184

Bouherar  150

Boules  117

Bouquett  91

Bourquin  167

Boutellier  167

Bowdle  161-62, 167

Bowen  98, 187

Bower  128

Bowling  162, 167

Bowyer  174-74

Brabant  167

Bradby  51

Bradford, William  62-64, 77, 86

Bradstreet  70

Brandenburg  178

Brandner  166

Brandon  41, 43, 164

Brashear  137

Brasier  91

Brassey  109

Bratton  146

Braund, Kathryn Holland  169

Braveboy  51

Brazil  86, 91, 103, 144, 154

Bremen  42

Bremige  47

Brenneiss  118

Brereton  130

Bresteede  90

Brewer  174

Brewington  50

Brewster  65-66

Brezca  125

Bright  67

Brimage  186

Brisbee  78

Briscoe  125-26

Bristol  11, 53-54, 105-8

Brocas  150

Brock/Brocke  54

Brook/Brooke  57, 109

Broom  184

Broucard  89

Broussee  54

Brouwer  89

Browewich  47

Brown, Rae & Company  169

Brown/Browne  36, 41, 43, 66, 67, 72, 132, 144, 171, 187

Bruce  43, 54

Brugh, van  98

Brun, Le  143

Brusie  100

Bryan/Bryant  43, 136, 138

Buatt  114

Bubar/Buber  112

Buchanan  147

Buckman  112

Bucks County, Pa.  117-18

Budaeus  186

Budocushyde  18

Buen/Bueno  91, 125

Buffalo Creek, N.C.  185

Buffam  68

Bulgar  67

Bull  148

Bulloch/Bullock  102, 147

Bunch  36

Bundy  162

Bunning  170

Buntin  112

Burgeois, de  151

Burges/Burgess  151, 167

Burke  120, 138

Burnett  51, 137

Burns, Rinnah Bonnie  119

Burr  67

Burton  162

Bus, de  114

Bush  43

Buss, Wanda Looney  187

Bute  185

Butler  167, 178

Buych  83

Buys  89

Byrd, William  55-56, 58

Bysshe  178

cabala  15, 20, 114, 174-76, 179, 184, 185

Cabarrus  186

Cabot  80

Cadiz  112, 117

Cadwalader  112, 186

Caen  95, 153

Caillemotte, La  151

Calais  88-89

Calderon  31

Caldwell  36, 146, 167, 170

Calef  67

Calhoun  146

Callahan  43

Calvert  123

Calvinists  141

Calwell  see  Caldwell

Cambon  151

Cambridge University  20-21, 95

Cammell  134

Campanal  92

Campbell  36, 43, 120, 148, 184

Camuse/Camus  164, 167

Canaan  113

Canaan  185

Canada  42, 85

Canada/Candia/Candiani/Candi  124

Canary Islands  18, 27-28, 47

Candelaria  31

Candy  168

Canide  117

Cannon  185

Canoday  see Canada

Canter/Cantor  113, 117, 120

Cantrell  142

Cape Girardeau  160

Capelle/Cappell  114, 184

Capen  67

Cappe  41, 53

Carballo  30

Card  53

Cardozo  84

Carew   13

Carey/Cary  112, 124

Caribbean  40-42, 66, 68-70, 85-87, 94, 146, 167-69

Carmuk  117

Carnall  124

Carnegie  103

Carolinas  36, 171; see also North Carolina; South Carolina

Carow  102

Carpenter/Carpentier  162

Carre  142, 151

Carrier  72

Carroll  184

Carter  36, 43, 50, 57

Carteret  106

Cartier  43

Carvajal  34, 47

Casaubon  179

Caselick  127

Casier  88-89

Cassandra  125, 171

Cassas, Alberto de las  27

Cassel  43, 127

Casson  127

Castelin, John  19

Castile, Spain  117

Castill  117

Catalonia  140

Catawba Indians  55

Cathars  114, 179, 181

Caton  67, 114

Cats  90

Caudill  36

Causey  53

Cavendish, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Cecil, William (1st Baron Burghley)  19, 21

Cenus Rosa  155

Cervantes  33

Chaffin  36, 136

Chaigneau  151

Chaim  117; see also Haim/Haym

Chamberlaine  151

Champagne  151

Champernoun   12, 18

Chaplin  53

Chapman  53, 112, 117, 185

Charlemagne  76, 176-77

Charles  II  106, 181

Charles Martel  175-77

Charlestown  187

Charpeles  116

Chartier, Martin   120

Chase  103

Chauny, Picardy  167

Chavez  34

Chavez, Angelico  34

Chavis  51

Cheever  67

Cheke, John  21, 22

Chelsea  72-73

Chenevix  151

Cherokee Indians  36, 55, 120, 137-38, 147-48, 167, 170, 187-88

Cherouse  168

Cherry  185

Chesebrough  67

Cheshire  129-30

Cheson  43

Chessed  132

Chester County, Pa.  116-17

Chew  135

Chickamauga  188

Chickasaw Indians  160-61, 169

Childe, Robert  178

China  56, 83, 85, 163

Chloe  171

Choctaw Indians  160-61

Chodowiesky, Johann  179

Choice of Emblems  179

Christopher  137

Christy  36

Chupa  116

Churton, Tobias  173, 178

Ciboney Indians  29

circumcision  178

citrus  28, 153

Clapp  68

Clark/Clarke   13, 43, 47, 69, 124, 167, 184, 187

Clarkson  98

Claypoole  108

Clewis  50

Cline  119

Cloeraly  50

Clopper  90

Cloyes  70

Clymer  74

Cobb  50

Coburg  166

Cock/Cocke  73, 117

Coen  85, 100

Coerten  89

Coeymans  100

Coffee  137, 167

Cogu  89

Cohaire  Indians  50

Cohan, George M.  43

Cohen  43, 57, 73, 85, 89, 100, 113, 118, 147, 162, 164, 170

Colden  99

Coligny  144

Colina  142

Collier  174

Collins   18, 36, 142, 167

Collop  51

Collot  151

Cologne  84

Colon  31; see also Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher  7-8, 27, 29, 31, 41

Columbus, Ga.  164

Comegys  127

Compagnie des Indes  159-60

Company for the Mines Royal  12

Comyns  148

Conant  68

Conellier, de la  148

Coney  67

Connecticut  184

Conraets  86

Constable  57

Constanta  66

Constitution  97, 185

Conversos  7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 40, 43, 46, 49, 124, 141, 144

Cook/Cooke  128; Lewis 184

Cooper 13, 36, 43, 50, 90, 100, 103, 120, 125-26, 129, 137-38, 147-48, 161-62, 167, 171, 185-86

Copenhagen  119

Copland/Copeland  68, 183

Copper see Cooper

Coppyn  54

coral trade  83

Coram  162

Corbett  124

Cordes  146

Corey  71

Corgin  57

Cornell  100

Cornier  89

Cornwall  11-12, 15, 16, 23, 24

Coronell  100

Cortes, Hernan  33

Cortland/ Cortlandt/Courtlandt, van  94, 100, 103

Costa, de/da  29, 84, 147, 152, 158, 164, 185

Costas  56, 57, 136; see also Costa

Cothoneau  142

Cotman  128

Cotton  67

Coulon  142

Courland  87

Coursey  125

Courson  134

Courtong  see  Courtonne

Courtonne  167

Cousin/Cussen/Cousins  151

Cousseau  88-89

Cowan/Cowen  36, 113

Cowl/Cowell  102

Cox/Coxe  167, 170, 186

Craddock  66

Cramer  121

Crane  79

Cray  91

Creek Indians  148, 167, 170, 172

Creek Mary  164

Cressman  118

Cresson  89

Crispel  89

Croatians  48, 50

Crohan  118

Crommelin  97-98, 150, 154

Cromwell  48, 137; Oliver 9, 96

Cross  118, 167

Crosse, Sir Robert  15

Crothaire  153

Crouch  126

Crowder  53

Cruger  98, 115

Cruz  30, 34, 167

Cuba  29-31

Cumberford  134

Cumberland Gap  36

Cumbo  51

Cummings/Cummins  148

Cuntz  see Koons/Kuntz

Curacao  98

Currier  81

Cushman  77

Cussen see Cousin

Custis  56, 57, 136

Cuyler  98

Cyprus  89, 108

Cyrus  112

Czech  53

Czepler  121

Dakes  124

Dalbo  117

Dale, Thomas, Sir  52

Damaris  66

Damen  89

Dana  67

Danan/Danna  155

Dandridge  59

Dane  70

Danforth  81

Danielsen  90

Danin  113

Dare  36, 50

Dare, Ananais  14

Dare, Virginia  50

Dargent  151

Darien  165, 167, 170

Darrah  117

Darrell  100

Dasher  166

Dashiell  128

Davenport  43, 137

David   11, 25, 35-36, 43, 66, 67, 91, 100, 109, 114, 177, 178

Davidson  115

Davies  99

Davis  43, 70, 119, 126, 128, 138, 170

Dawes  67, 184

Day  70, 116

Deane  185

Deborah  72

DeBrahm  170

Decker  100

Declaration of Independence  98, 183

Dee  14, 178; John 14, 21-22, 178-79

Defoe, Daniel  84, 167

Dela  177

Delancey  43, 94, 103, 115

Delano  63, 101-2

Delaware  88, 184; Lord  52

Delegal  167

Delgado  167

Delieben  187

Delmar, Jorge  29

Demarest  89

D’Embrun/D’Ambrain see Dombrain

Demery  51

Demetres/Demetrius  167

Denis  155

Denmark  119, 153, 169, 178

Denne  187; see also Denney; Dennie

Denney/Denny  137, 155-57, 185

Dennie  185

Derbyshire  78

Dericksen  89

Descartes, Rene  84

D’Esmiers  154

Destemple  167

Deval  165

Deveaux/Devaux  146, 148, 167

Devereux, Robert 20, 21

Devon 11-12, 23

Dewes/Dews  114; see also Dues

Diamond/Dyamond  117

Dias/Diaz  14, 18, 21, 28, 31, 70, 116, 126, 147; Pedro 14

Dicer  70

Dick  184

Dickinson  184

Dieppe  17

Digby  162

Dinah  116

Dinana  120

Dingasey  117

Dionysus  175, 185

Disharone  126

DNA  11-12, 16, 26-27, 29, 31, 33, 35-38, 72-73, 137

DNA Consultants  38

Dobb  137

Dobree  184

Dod/Dodd  114, 178

Dody  67

D’Olbreuse  154

Dolen  137

Doll  121

D’Olier  152

Dombrain  152

Dooly/Dooley  167

Dorcas  79, 126

Doty  66

Douai  167

Doublehead  120

Doubt  67

Doudel  114

Dougherty  170

Dourado, Fernaõ Vaz  15

Douw/Dow/Dowe  100

Drake, Sir Francis  15-16, 23, 47-48, 144

Draper  115

Drayton  148

Drelincourt  152

Dresler  167

dress and costume  60, 104-105

Drexel/Drexler/Drechsler  120

Driver  119

Droz  152

Duarte  30

Dubnow, Simon  64

Dubourdieu  152

Duenkel  114

Dues  167

Duesen, van  100

Duffe/Duffey  134, 184

Duffua  117

Dull, Keith  114-15

Dullea  167

Dumas  67

Dundas  115

DuPont  103

Duppa, Thomas, Sir  179

Duran/Durant  28, 34, 170

Durie/Dury  89, 152

Dussen, van der  148

Dutch East India Company  39, 83-84

Dutch West India Company  39, 85-86

Dutcher  100

Duval  152

Duycking/Duyckinck   90, 98

Duyou  89

Duyts  89

Dyck, van  88, 94

dyestuffs  83-84, 148

Dyott  178

Eachus  116

Earl Marshall of England  186

Earle  135

Eason/Jason  53

Eastey/Esty  68, 70

Easton  79

Eaton  66, 69, 106

Ebbing  91

Ebenezer, Ga.  165

Edaliah/Edeliah  124

Eder  119

Edinburgh  160, 182

Edna  177

Eelckens  85

Egypt  174-75, 187

Eida  177

El Mer  67

Elahmi  174

Elam  137

Eleazar  112

Elfe  184

Eli see Ely

Elias  174

Elijah  174

Eliot/Elliott  57, 132, 167, 184, 187

Elizabeth I  9, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 51, 63

Elkanah  77, 85, 112

Ellam  174

Ellard  156

Ellery  187

Ellis/Elles  43, 127, 162, 167, 185

Elne  140

Elphinstone/Elphinston  112, 168, 182

Elsasser  114

Elslegal  117

Ely/Eli  54, 112

Eman  178

Emanuel  165

Emerson  185

Emery  67

Emes  185

emir  185

Emmanuel  50

Encyclopedia of Southern Culture  160

Endelmann, Todd  42

Endicott, John  60, 66

Engel/Engles  85, 113, 119

England  127

English  66

Enoch  176

Episcopalians  184, 186

Erouard  142

Eshleman, Henry Frank  114

Esselsteen  100

Essex  70, 77

Estes  68

Esther  72, 116, 119, 124, 164

Etalka  177

Ethel  177

Etter  119

Etting  42, 43

Eveleth  70

Eyck, ten  100

Eycott  168

Eyles  162

Eyseck  114

Fabian  113

Facey/Facy; 185; John  23

Facit see Fawcett

Faddes  116

Faesch  166, 185

Fagan  117

Fahie  167, 169

Fahm  166

Fahnestock  120

Falco/Falcon/Falconer  127, 179

Falk  43

Falkner/Faulkner  127

Fanu, Le  153

Fao  166

Farber, Eli  42

Farr  67

Farrah  128

Farrar  70

Farrett  90

Fasciculus Chemicus  179

Fassell  117

Fassi  14, 185

Fassit see Fawcett

Faure  108

Fausille  152

Fawcett 132

Feber  101

Febos/Febus  3, 32, 37, 168

Fedam  54

Feibus  115

Feisal  114

Fell  111

Ferdinando, Simon  14, 47

Fermoor  76

Fernandes  29

Feron  67

Ferrar/Ferry  52, 63, 113

Ferreby  171

Ferro  30

Fez  166, 168

Fezer  168

Fickling  147

Field  103

Fielder  119

Fiennes  75-76

Fiesel  114

Filoux  142

Finland  87

Firestone  103

Fischer, David Hackett  60

Fischer/Fisher  101, 166, 168

Fish  103

Flatow  166

Fleming  99

Flemish  83-91, 166

Flerl  166

Fletcher  66

Fleury  152

Flood  68, 177

Florence, Florentine  114, 117

Florentina  114

Flores  33, 36, 86, 170

Florida  36, 148, 166, 178

Florio  45

Flory  121

Flowers  50, 86, 115

Fludd  see  Flood

Folsom  185

Fonda  100

food  71, 98, 178

Fookes  134

Foote  69

Forbes  18, 37, 43, 103, 127, 182

Forbes, John & Co.  169

Ford  108

Forest, de  86, 90, 100, 103, 124

Foret , de la  146, 152

Forrentine  117

Fort Pickering  161

Fossett  see  Fawcett

Foucks  115

Fowle  168

Fox:  115, 162, 168, 178;  George  111

Foxley  135

France  143, 159-60, 180

Francis  155, 168

Franck  see  Frank

Francken  185

Franco  127

Frank/Franks  42,  92-93, 115-16, 127, 168; Solomon, rabbi 178

Frankeln  184

Frankfurt  166

Frankish  177

Franklin  43, 181, 184; Benjamin  186

Frantz  115

Fraser/Frazier  103, 168

Frederica, Ga.  167, 170

Frederick County, Md.  118-19

Freeman  51, 67, 127

Freemasonry  162, 173-89

Freitas, de  29

French Canadians  43-44

French/Frensch  78, 100, 115, 128, 185

Frenchmen  140-58, 161, 166, 178

Friedmann  127

Friends of God  114

Frisbey  133

Frise, de  1003

Frobisher, Martin  18-19

Frocis  165

Fry  67, 70

Fuchs  111, 113, 115, 134

Fulk  155

Gabay  41, 97

Gable/Gabel  168

Gabriel  119, 168

Gades  112

Gaeiss/Geiss  113

Gael  127

Gager  67

Gaillard  146

Gaither  128

Galas  168

Galche  168

Gale  127, 143

Gallais  143

Galloway  184

Galphin  168, 170

Galphin, Holmes & Co.  170

Galprin  168

Galwey  115

Gamage, John  20

Gamalise  117

Gambia  87

Gamelin  67

Gammon  117

Gandy  168

Gans see Ganz

Ganz:  113:  Joachim  12, 14, 47, 171

Garber  119

Garcia  34, 53

Gardiner/Gardner   66, 67, 68, 90, 100, 103

Gardines  67

Gare, Le  146, 163

Garland  79

Garret  134

Garvey  186

Gaskill  68

Gass  113

Gates, Sir Thomas  20, 51-52

Gaussen  152

Gedda  117

Geddes  117, 187

Geddy  186

Gee  67, 124

Geiger  146, 179

Geist  103

Gemma   21

Gemmel  113

Gendron  146

Geneste  152

Genoa  13, 18, 27

George  106

George II  148

George III  186

Georgia  159-72, 184, 236-49

Georgia Southern University  171

Gerber, Jane  25

Germans and Germany  83, 94, 112-21, 166, 168, 179

Gerritsen  89

Gersone  28

ghettoes  46, 64

Gibbs  168

Gideon  143

Gil  32

Gilbert:  106; Humphrey, Sir 13, 14, 23, 45

Gilde  97

Giles  66, 68

Gillon  147

Gilman  184-85

Gimbel/Gimble  91, 103

Girtee  117

Gist/Guest  58, 113, 129, 137-39, 171, 184, 188

Gitlitz, David  14

Givens  37

Glasick  113

Glass  108

Glasscock  178

Glasser  113

Glick  121

Gloucester  69-70, 105

Glover, Jose  63

Gnostics  175-76, 181, 184

Goar  171

Godfrey  134

Godyn  86

Goff/Goffe/Gough  66

Goins  37

Gold  112

Goldsborough  133

Goldsmith  124-25, 168, 185

Goldstone  67

Goldthwaite  68

Goldwire  168

Gomery  117

Gomez  34, 49, 92-93:  Luis Moses 92-93

Gomez Mill House  92

Gomez Robledo, Francisco  34

Gonson   18

Good  37, 71, 121

Goodale/Goodall  68, 80

Gooding  125

Goodman  43, 66

Goodwin  43

Gookin  53

Gording  126

Gordon  37, 43, 162, 168

Gorges  63

Gorman  184

Gosnold, Bartholomew, Capt.  51, 181

Goss  113, 152

Gosset  152

Goujon  143

Gould  68, 103

Gouldsmith 54

Gouverneur  98

Gower  171

Goya/Goyer  153

Gozzi  152

Grace  165

Gracey  116

Gracia  116, 137

Graeme  187

Graff, de  114

Graham  99

Granger/Grainger  134, 186

Granville   24, 171

Gratz  42, 137

gravestones  120-21

Grazillier  90

Great Seal of the United States  184

Great Wagon Road  150

Greece  119, 158

Greek names  155, 171

Green/Greene  47, 50, 91, 117, 124

Greenville/Greenfield  47

Gregg  43

Gregory  137

Grenville, Sir Richard  22-24

Greville  148

Grey   18; Lady Jane 21

Grice  51

Grimes  51, 57

Groen  91

Grootinhuis, ten  83

Gross/Grossman  72, 113

Grotius, Hugo  83

Grunau  166

Gually/Guale  153

Guanajatabeye Indians  29

Guanches  27

Guerard  146

Guerin  168

Guerry/Guerra  143

Guess/Guest see Gist

Guggenheim  53

Gugul  168

Guillot  153

Guindi/Gundi  166

Guindre  166

Guion  142

Guirard  168

Gulet/Goelet  98, 185

Gunter  166

Gur  113

Gurganus  53

Guthrie, James  38

Guyenne  141

Guyon  153

Guzman  32

Gypsies; see Romani

Haak  179

Haal  116

Habacki  117

Habersham  170, 184

Hackett  134

Hadrian  175

Haes  147

Haga  116

Hagar  114

Haggara  54

Hagger, Nicholas  180-81

Hague, The  90

Haim/Haym  54, 92

Hair  118

Hakluyt, Richard  14, 23, 45, 63

Hala  118

Halam  54

Hale/Heale.Hales  18, 37, 53, 67, 162

Halfbreeds  161

Hall  128

Haman/Hammann  113

Hamburg  42

Hamel  86

Hamer  133

Hamet  177

Hamilton  43, 115-16, 168:  Alexander  98

Hamlin  79

Hamm 168, 169

Hammon  114

Hammond  133

Hamon  124, 129, 153

Hamor 52, 54

Hancock  184

Hand  155

Hanel  88

Hanna  155

Hannah  50-51, 72, 79

Harad/Harrod  170

Harby  43

Hari/Harry  113

Harlan  125

Harlem, N.Y.  88-90

Harman  134, 162

Harmon  146

Harnett  186

Harriot, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Harris   3, 23, 53, 168, 170, 185; Leon 3

Hart   13, 42, 43, 70, 97, 113, 115, 118, 171, 184, 185, 186

Hartlib  178

Hartman  113, 119

Harvard College  81

Harvey, Dionys  14

Harwood  127

Hasbroucq  89

Hasell  117

Hasselaar  83

Hava  116

Havre, Le (French port)  17

Hawkes  70

Hawkins  15, 43, 170; Sir John  16-18, 144

Hay/Hays  42, 43, 91, 97, 113, 118, 124, 185

Hayak  179

Hayim  113, 135; see also Haim; Chaim

Hayman/Heyman  116

Hayms  54

Hayne  148

Hazard/Hasaret/Hassard  153, 168

Heard  168

Heathecote  97, 162

Heaton, Ronald F.  184

Heays  135

Hebrew  56, 62, 126-27, 132, 171, 174-75, 178, 179, 186

Hebron  79, 117, 127

Heinle  166

Helfenstein  166

Helmsley  135

Helvinstine  168

Hendricks  42, 94, 164

Henriques/Henriquez  41, 94, 128

Henry  42, 43, 58-59, 128:  Patrick 58-59

Henry VIII  9, 13, 17

Hepburn  127

heretic  114

Hermes Trismegistus  176, 179

Hernandez  28

Heron  168, 185

Heroy/Heouida  142

Herrera  33

Herrick  68

Hershey  119

Hertz  114

Hewes  47, 67

Hey see  Hay

Heyrman, Christine  69-72

Heysig  179

Hezron  77

Hibberd  116

Hibron  117

Hill  131, 134

Hilton  145

Hime  117

Hingham, Mass.  78

Hiram  134, 175

Hird  see  Heard

Hirsch  119, 168

Hirschman, Elizabeth Caldwell  182

Hite  57

Hoffman  91

Holiday  124, 133

Holland  100, 162, 184

Homans  67

Homem  67

Hood  127

Hoopes  116

Hopwell  126

Horn/Horne, (van)  68, 99, 100

Horry/Hori  143, 146

Horsmanden, Mary  55

Houston  37, 43

Howard  5, 43, 137

Howard, Sir Charles (admiral)  17

Howell  40, 103

Howland  102

Hucks  162

Hud/Hut  127

Hudde  83

Hudson  128, 148

Huffnagle  116

Huger  146, 163

Hughes  162; see also Hewes

Huguenot Society of America  149 

Huguenots  19, 29, 41, 52-54, 56, 68, 86-88, 91, 95, 99-100, 108, 114, 118, 140-58, 163, 166

Huldah  72

Hungar  85

Hungary  45, 85, 114

Hunt, (de la)  43, 125;  Robert, Rev.  51

Hurd  see Heard

Hussy  127

Hutchinson  66, 69, 87, 187

Hutto  146

Hyam/Hyams  117, 165

Hyatt/Hyett  57, 127

Hyman/Hymen  116, 117

Hynson  128

Ibanez  30

Iconoclasts  114

Idris  176

imam  178

Inabinet  146

India  85, 174

Indian traders  221-23, 234-35

Ingersoll  68

Inigo  178

I’on  168

Ioor  147

Irby  155

Irish  106, 149-50, 155, 167, 170

Iroquois Indians  58, 96

Isaac/Isaacs  91, 114, 128, 168, 179, 184

Isabella  99

Isacks  see  Isaacs

Isacksen  90

Ishmael  116, 174

Isle of Man  137, 187-88

Isles  162

Ismali Muslims  174

Israel  41, 113, 116, 154, 164, 169; Israel 184; see also Ben Israel

Issachar  100, 116

Italian names  155, 163, 164

Itta  176-77

Izard  148

Izman  168

Jabel  175

Jabez  67

Jachin  179, 184

Jackson  43

Jacob/Jacobs  50, 51, 54, 68, 71, 83, 87-88, 97, 99, 113, 116, 118, 128, 167

Jacobeans  181

Jacobs, Joseph  3, 25

Jacoby  121

Jacome  29

Jadwyn  124

Jael  112, 134

Jafar  67

Jamaica  47, 91, 95, 146

James  147

James IV  183

Jamestown  51-53, 185

Jamison  185

Jappie  117

Jaquett  184

Jarvis  67

Jasper  106

Jay  91, 103;  John 184

Jeanneret  168

Jeansack  168

Jefferson, Thomas  73, 106, 181

Jeffries  67

Jekabs  87

Jemboy  51

Jemima  128, 139

Jenkinson  125

Jerald  67

Jewish Publication Society  186

Jews:  anti-Catholicism  64-65, 184; Ashkenazi  38, 43, 68, 92-93, 100, 112-3, 143, 164, 166, 189; Caribbean  40-42; diaspora of 14, 45-46, 98, 128-29, 184, 189;  Dutch  83-85, 100, 125, 179; Egyptian  128-29, 175-76; expulsions 7-9, 13, 21, 45-46, 69, 64, 84, 140-41, 189; in finance 9, 11, 21, 23, 51, 72, 91, 103, 160, 165, 174, 186; in Freemasonry 173-89; French 25, 54, 100, 140-41, 189; in London 141, 159, 164; naming practices 3, 66, 68, 77, 91, 113-14, 116, 128, 142, 174, 191-200; as merchants 1-2, 9, 39, 55-57, 64, 72, 85-91, 98; Moroccan 13; numbers 26, 44, 148; occupations  41, 52, 63, 90-91, 108-9, 118, 171, 174; as physicians  41, 135, 154, 178; rituals 68, 86, 91, 111, 174, 177-78, 201-2; Roman 26, 91, 141; secularization, 132; Semitic  38; Sephardic 25-27, 39-40, 43, 46, 64, 68, 128-29, 164, 166-67, 189, 192-200

Jimenez  34

Jirael  117

Joachime  90

Joder  see  Yoder

Johnson  43, 115, 168, 169

Johnson, Ben  180

Johnston  51, 96

Jones  51, 124; George F. 166; Inigo 178

Jordan  53

Josephus  41

Jouet  143

Jouneau  142

Journee  89

Jubel  175

Judah  124, 126

Judd  117

Judea  116

Judith  72, 177, 178

Juiman  54

Juliana  135

Jump  125

Juneau  97

Junia  67

Kalonymos  197

Kalteisen  146

Kammer  118

Kane  134

Kaph  112

Kapp  113

Karel  83

Karsens  89

Kaskaskia  160

Kast  67

Katz  90, 113

Kauffmann/Kaufman  119

Kay, (de)  91, 97, 168

Keene  185

Keeton  137

Kelkta  100

Kelly, Edward  179

Kelpius  114

Kendall, George  51

Kennedy  37, 43, 124, 137, 168

Kentucky  136-37, 186

Kettering  119

Keulon, van  84

Keymis, Lawrence  15

Keziah  126

Khazars  114

Khori/Cori  71

Kibbey  68

Kierside  90

Kimberling  119

King  113, 116, 119, 184

King David’s Lodge  187

Kinloch  147

Kinser  119

Kintz  113

Kissam  94

Klein  119

Kline  118-19

Kniffen  100

Knox, John  110

Kocherthal  101

Koenig  113, 119

Koger  137

Koons/Kuntz  100, 113, 118, 121

Koppel  68, 114

Krohn/Kron  113, 118-19

Kronenshelt  67

Kronin  113

Kugel  168

Kuhn  113, 115, 119

Kunst  101

Kuntz  see  Koons

Kupferstein, von  32

Kuykendal  146

LaBadie  179

LaBarree, Benjamin  65

Labat/Labatt  19, 41, 43, 153

Labon  43, 168

Lacy  178

Laet, de  86

Lafayette  184

LaFon  91

Lago  111

Lagrange  100

Lamb  127

Lambert  73

Lameth  175

Lancelot  80

Lane, Ralph  23, 47

Langlais  150

Langley  43, 153

Lansing  98

L’Apostre  162

Lareux  125

Laroche  see  Roche

Larochefoucauld  153

Lasse  117

Lassell/Lazel  128

Latrobe  184

Latvia  87

Laudonniere  46

Lauer  113

Laughman  121

Laurens  146

Laurent  91

Laval, de  151

Lavalade, de  151

Lavender, Abraham  140

Law:  John 159-60

Lawne  53

Lawrence  99

Lawson  43

Layard/Layarde, de  153

Laybon  see  Labon

Laydon, John  51

Laykan  117

Lea  184

Lea/Leah  116, 119, 126

Leal  33

Leavitt/Levet  54, 67, 76-80

Lebo/Leebow  161

Lebon  168

Leda/Ledah  124

Ledesma  165

Lee  56-58, 99, 184; Richard, II  57

LeFebre  89

Lefferts  98

Leflore/Lefleur  170

Lefroy/Leffroy  153

Legare  see  Gare

Legendres  163

Leghorn  27, 87, 129, 153

LeGuidon, Ormus  173

Leiden  51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 90, 126

LeMere  178

LeNoir  112

Leon, de  164, 166, 168

LeRoy  87, 89, 100

LeSage  161, 169

L’Escury, de  151

Lesher  100

Leslie  37, 170

LeSueur  89

Levan  113

Levandt  113

Levant Company  19

Lever/Levor/Levot  146

Leverett  69

Levet see Leavitt

Levi   14, 19, 54, 80, 97, 99, 113, 116, 128, 184; see also Levy

Levin  126

Levina  116, 132

Levinus  98

Levirate law  21, 127, 133, 136, 154

Levis  116

Levy  115, 118, 164-65, 187; Asser  42

Levyans  54

Lewers  113

Lewis  43, 132, 168, 170, 184, 185, 187

Lichfield  173-74

Lilly  177

Lincoln  84;  Abraham  79, 84

Lindo  147, 148

Lines/Lion  168

Lion  see  Leon; Lyon; Lines

Lippy  119

Lisbon  98

Liske  53

Lithuania  87, 148, 189

Little/Little  121, 162

Littler  174

Livingston/Livingstone  96-100, 103, 184, 185

Livorno  see  Leghorn

Lloyd  43, 135

Loackermanns  91

Lobato  153, 169

Locke, John  84, 145

Lodwick  96

Loew  see  Low

Logan  146

Logier  153

Lok/Louk/Locke   19, 84, 91

Lollards  114

Lombards  163

Lombe  163

Long  170

Long Island   134

Looney  37, 137, 187-88; Moses 187

Lopez  34, 42, 164; Rodrigo, Dr.  9, 51

Lopez de Mendizaval, Bernardo  34


Lore  113

Lorich/Lorich/Lorig  146

Lott  94

Louis XIV  160

Louisiana  160

Lourdes  146

Loureiro  29

Lovel  186

Lovelace/Loveless  137

Lovelin  127

Lovina  79

Low/Lowe/Loew/Loewe  80, 113, 128, 168, 169, 170

Lowell  80-81, 103, 185

Lowrey/Lowry  118

Luca  91

Lucas  89, 146, 148

Lucena  97, 165

Lucero  34

Lucke  117

Lucretia  50

Ludlow  97

Ludolph  178

Lula  155

Lumbee Indians  50, 51

Luna   18, 34, 35, 112, 137, 187

Lunel  140

Luria/Lurie  113, 118

Lutherans  42, 112-14, 166, 217-21

Lydia  77, 116, 118, 171

Lydius  94

Lynn, Mass.  70

Lyon/Lyons  42, 118, 164; Moses 42

maaseh  128

Mabel  116

Mace  124

Machado  29, 164

Machir ben Habibai  25, 76, 140-41

Mackay  170

MacKuen  170

Macon  186

Madagascar  100

Madariega, Salvador de  8

Madeiras  29, 95

Magalotti  178

Magellan  29

magic  20, 22, 175-76, 179

Magnon  91

Magus of Freemasonry, The  173

Mahaffa  154

Mahallah  154

Mahzig  143

Maimonides  181

Mainwaring  174

Makhir  see  Machir

Makissack  185

Malacca  84

Malea  161

Malka, Jeffrey  39

Mangin  154

Manigault  146, 163

Mann  43

Manner  127

Mannheim  88-89

Mansel/Mansell  124

manufactures  52, 144, 151, 163

Marat  56

Marcer  168

Marcus  128

Marcus, Jacob R. 41-42

Mare  186

Marest see Demarest

Mariah  112

Marie Antoinette, queen of France  177

Marin  30

Marino  170

Marion  146

Maris  116

Marius  91

Marks/Marx  91, 117, 171

Marquez/Marques  91

Marranos  1, 27, 41, 63, 70, 86-91, 95, 179; see also Conversos

Marseilles  170, 185

Marsh/Marshman  70, 134

Marshall  116, 184

Martin  43, 119, 185

Martineau  142

Martinez  34

Martyn  162, 168

Maryland  123-39, 167, 223

Masicq/Mazyck  143, 163

Mason, George  55

Massa/Masse/Massey  128-29

Massachusetts  60-82, 212-16; Freemasons 185

Massachusetts Bay Colony  66

Massey  116, 124, 128-31

Maszig  100

Mather  67

Mathy  154

Matson  96-97

Matthysen  89

Mau  85

Mauer  113

Maule  70, 71

Maurer  114

Maurice   20, 85, 91

Maurits  90

Maxey  129

May/Mays  62, 85, 121, 124

Maycock  53

Mayden  89

Mayow  117

Mazieres  154

Mazza  129

McAbee  37

McBean  168

McBlair  43

McCowen  118

McDermott, James 48

McDonald  188

McEvers  100

McGillivray  168

McKee  170

McMillan  125

McQueen  170

Mead  100

Mears  42, 168

Medina  32

Meeks  157

Meir  21, 94, 97, 168

Melle, de  29

Mellon  103

Melungeons  17, 23, 36-39, 51, 54, 72-72, 81, 119, 136, 161, 167, 170, 172

Memphis  160-61

Mendenhall  184

Mendez  32, 73, 169, 184

Mendoza  46, 84

Mennonites  114

Menoah  171

menorah  179

Mercier  154

Mercury  179

Mesick/Messick  100

Mesquita, de  169

messiahs, false  47

Messier  90


Matityah  143

mestizo  33

Mettauer  119

Mexico  33-34

Meyer, de  88

Meyer/Meyre, (de)  89, 97

Michael/Michaels  42, 43, 168

Michel  168

Michener  116

Michie  147, 187

Mickve Israel Congregation  184

Microcosmus Hypochondriacus  179

Miles   18

Millam/Millim  168

Miller  40, 134

Milton, Giles  48

Minelly/Minelli  128

mining  11-13, 47, 171

Minis  168, 170

Minor/Mainor  50

Minter  65

Minuit, Peter  87

minyan  124

Mira  116-17

Mirabal  32

Mirfin  77

Miriam  72, 81

Mississippi  160

Mitchell  43, 148

Moesman  88

Moffat  100

Mohammed  177, 179

Moises/Moyshe  54, 178

Molina  40

Money  133

Monfort  166

Moniac/Monaque  170

Monroe  184

Monroux, de  178

Montagne  88-89

Montagu  148

Montaigut  168

Montana/Montanha  88

Montbrai  186

Montel  41

Montesinos  32

Montfort, Simon de  140

Montgomery  146

Montgomery, Ala.  170

Moon  112

Moor, (de)  86, 113, 162

Moore  37, 43, 127, 131, 146, 148, 177, 185

Mooser  113

Mophat  see  Moffat

Moravians  166

Moray  178

Mordecai/Mordechai  42, 128, 131, 164-65, 170, 186

More  65, 108

Moreau  54, 100

Morell/Morrel  154, 168

Moreno  42, 114

Morgan  37, 103

Morgenstern  114

Moriscos  7, 9, 14,  17, 21, 24, 30, 46, 52, 110, 124, 126, 132, 144, 154

Moro District  161

Morocco  68, 90, 106, 177-78, 185

Morrey  186

Morris  96-100, 117:  Gouverneur  96-97; Robert  74, 165

Morrison  37, 43, 170

Mosco  49

Mosell  85

Moser  113, 116

Moses  113, 117, 118, 164, 177-78

Moshe  116

Mosquera/Mosquero  31

Moss  117

Mosser  113

Mott  184

Motta, de la  164, 187

Motte  146, 164

Motteair  168

Moulin  54

Moulton  184

Mournier  143

Mowbray  186

Muche  100

Muir  162, 186

mulattoes  125

Mullica  117

Munich  170

Muniz  32

Murer  118

Murfree  186

Murhead  113

Murr  113

Muscovy Company  19, 22

Musgrove, Mary  164

musicians  13, 55, 153, 185

Musick  143

Muslims:  in England 11, 177-79; expulsion from Spain 8, 178, 189; in Freemasonry, 173-89; practices  68, 110, 182, 202-203

mustee  170

Muttear  168

Myers, Myer  94, 100, 121, 186

Naar/Narr  41

Nairne  170

Naphthali  113

Napier  177

Narbonne  25, 35, 110, 140-42

Nash  134

Nashville  171

Nasi  140-41

Natchez Indians  160

Nathan  118

Native Americans  38-39, 48-49, 52, 57, 63, 85, 96, 117-18, 144-45, 161

Navarre  141, 179

Nave  188

Neale  186

Negos  179

Negroes  167

Neoplatonism  181

Neu  168

Nevis  146, 169

New  168

New Atlantis  180

New Hampshire  69, 77, 185

New Jersey  182, 184; Freemasons 185

New Madrid  160

New Mexico  34-36, 45

New Netherland and New Amsterdam  83-91, 95, 98, 117

New York:  Freemasons 185

Newberry  37, 43, 70

Newbury, Mass.  80

Newce, William, Sir  53

Newhouse  43

Newman  43

Newport  49, 51

Newport, R.I.  42

Ney  37

Nicasius  106

Nichols  43, 171

Nihil/Nile  117

Nimes  154

No, De la   19, 63, 91, 97

Noah  63, 155, 175

Noble/Nobel  43, 74, 168

Nochem  85

Noel  66

Nooms  85

Norfolk, Duke of  186

Normand/Norman  154

Norris   20, 70, 99, 116

North Augusta, S.C.  162

North Carolina  50-51, 137, 184; Freemasons 185-86

Norton, John, Rev.  63, 69

Norwood  70

Nova Caesarea  185

Novum Organum  180

Noyes  71

Numar  134

Numus Graecus  175

Nunes/Nunez  21, 28, 164, 170, 184

Nurse  70

Oaks  42

Ober  68

Oblinus, van  89

Occaneechi Indians  50; Trail 186

Oceanus  66

Ocosand  54

octoroon  160

Odell  128

O’Farrill, Jose Richardo  30

Ogden  99, 185

Oglethorpe, James  162, 184

OHassan  117

Ohio Company  58

Ohr  113

Olive  74

Oliver  80

Olivera/D’Oliveria  29, 147

Orange  140, 149, 151, 178

oranges; see citrus

Order of the Knights of the Helmet  179-80

Orpha  116, 155

Ortellius, Abraham  15

Os, van  83

Oseas/Osias  116

Osgood  70

Osorio, de  31

Ostenaco  188

Otis  184

Otmar  118

Ottey  174

Ottolenghi  163, 168

Ottoman Empire  2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 67, 90, 119, 145, 188

Ouizman  161

Oxford University  154, 173

Paca  124

Pace  53

Pache  124

Pacheco  98

Page/Pages  51, 57, 161, 168

Pagit/Paget  174

Paine, Thomas  73-75

Palatinate  100-1, 114, 118, 146, 166, 178

Palestine  154

Pamunkey Indians  51

Panther-Yates, Donald N.  163

Pantoja  32

Panton, Leslie & Co.  169

Papin  91

Papists  69

Papo/Papot  91, 168

Paracelsus  179

Pardo  32, 41, 144, 187

Paris  160, 168

Parisis  88

Parker  70, 137

Parmenas  125

Parmenius, Stephen  14, 45

Parmentier  89

Parmley  137

Parquet/Parke  40, 56

Parrat  124

Parret  132

Parris  68, 71, 146

Parrot  133

Parry  168

Paterson/Patterson  184, 185

Patey  128

Patte  106

Paulet  179

Paulicians  114

Paun  83

Pavey  168

Pavia  168

Pavo  128

Pavoncello  128

Pawley  147

paynim  173

Peach/peaches  128, 164

Peacock  128, 179

Pedroe  117

Peiser  91

Pelgrom  85

Pell  184

Pena  45

Penn, William  104-110, 121

Pennock  116

Pennsylvania  104-22, 166, 217-23; Freemasons  186; Lancaster 42

Pensacola  169

Pepe/Pepi  177

Pepin II  177

Pepin the Older  177

Pepper  112

Pepys  177

Percival  80, 162

Percy  51

Pereira  29, 103

Perez  28, 68

Perkins  78

Perla  165

Perrin  154

Perry  37, 51, 53, 66, 96, 146, 170, 184

Perryman  170

Persian  79-80, 83, 88, 113, 126, 128, 174

Persis  79

Petit  41

Petman  47

Petrie  100

Peyre  146

Peyster, de  98, 100, 103

Peyton  184

Phar  67

Pharabus  171

Pharez  68

Pharrow  112

Phartouat  29

Philadelphia  41-42, 115, 117-18, 161

Philip/Philips  see  Phillips

Philipse see Phillips

Phillipini  171

Phillippi  113, 119

Phillips   2-3, 17, 18, 42, 43, 94-96, 103, 115, 127, 128, 132, 164, 168

Phillipse see Phillips

Philliptenia  119

Philpot, John  21

Phipps  137

Phoebe  171

Phoebus  115

Phoenicians  11-12, 25, 28, 33, 73

phoenix  179

Picards  186

Pickett, Albert James  170

Piercey, Abraham  52

Pierpoint  53

Pierry  118

Pigod  186

Pigues/Piggs  147

Pincas/Pinhas  174

Pinckney  146, 148

Pinket/Pinquet  174

pirates and privateers  8, 13, 15, 31, 48, 90, 95

Pires  29

Pitts  72

Place  168

Plancius/Planck, ver  84, 97

Plese  100

Plessy  168

Plymouth  11, 18, 106

Plymouth Company  65

pogroms  140-41, 166

Pogue  41

Polak  41

Poland  51, 148, 189

Polish  90, 97, 121, 162, 165, 179

Polk  41

Pollard  178

Polock  97

Ponte/Ponto   18

Pontington  130-31

Poole  53

Pooley  53

Pope  184

Poppin  83

Porcher  146

Port, du  152

Portuguese  124, 141, 155

Pory, John  52, 63

Powell  53

Powers  37, 76

Pratt  162

Presto  89

Price  43, 185

Pricoleau  146

Priest  66

Prince/Printz  70, 79, 90, 185

Pringle  147, 186

Prise  117

Proctor  70

Protestants  9, 17, 19, 21, 41, 75, 86, 104-22, 141, 170

Provence  140

Puerto Rico  31-32

Pulitzer  103

Purdy  100

Purnell  132

Purrysburgh  120, 146, 165-67, 169

Putnam  70, 71: Israel 184

Pyncheon  66, 99

Pysdry  90

Pythagorean  184

quadroon  170

Quakers  42, 68, 70-73, 104-22, 125, 131, 139, 171-72:  meeting house 74

Queen Anne  115

Raboteau  154

Racial Exclusionary Act of 1790  3

Rackliffe  132

Rae  168

Rafael  128

Rain/Raines  126, 155

Raina  154

Rainsborough   106

Raisen/Rasin  126-27

Raleigh, Sir Walter  10, 12-15, 22, 23, 47

Ralph/Rafe  128

Rambo/Rambeaux  117

Ramey  54

Ramirez  32

Rand  67

Randolph  184

Rangel  32

Raphael   23, 155, 168

Rappe  143

Rasieres, de  85-86

Rassin  143

Rast  146

Rastell  106

Ratcliffe, John, Capt.  51

Rattier  91

Rattling Gourd, Daniel  188

Ravel  41

Ravenel  146

Rawlins  146

Raymond  153, 168; see also Reymond

Rayner, John  63

Re  142-43

Rea/Ray  68, 118; see also Rae; Rhea

Read/Reed/Reade  132-33

Reason  128

Rebecca  177

Redheaded Will, chief  188

Reform Judaism  158

Regreny  142

Reintzel  184

Reis  168

Remi  54

Remsen  98

Renssalaer, van  86, 90, 99

Reseaux  142

Reson  88

Reupel  94

Revere, Paul  67, 184, 185

Revil  50

Rey  168

Reyes  30

Reymond/Raimund/Raymond   47, 68, 168

Reyne  126, 155

Reynet, de  154

Reynolds, Joshua, Sir  188

Rezin  171

Rezio  169

Rhea  185

Rhett  147

Rhoda  116, 171

Rhode Island  87, 106, 186-87

Rhodes/Roads  112, 116

Ribault  144

Rice  43, 137

Richards  53

Rickman  73

Riddell  142

Ringgold  124

Ringo  91

Rittenhouse  74

Rive, La  153

Roanoke colony  14, 19, 47-51, 144

Robbins/Robins  132-33

Robena  112

Roberson/Robeson  171

Robertson  171

Robin   20

Robinet  143

Robinson  43, 65, 102, 171, 133

Robles  41

Roby  67

Rocca  162

Roche, de la  41, 153, 162, 168

Rochelle, La  17, 29, 91, 142-43, 146, 150

Rockefeller  103

Roderick  54

Rodrigo de Triana  8

Rodriguez de Matos, Don Francisco  34

Rodriguez/Rodrigues  28, 54

Roelfsen  90

Rogers  43

Roman  116

Romani  39, 160, 162, 203-4

Romeyn  91

Romig/Romich  116

Roosevelt  98, 101-3

Rosa  29, 133

Rose  101, 116, 126

Roseanna  132

Rosenfeld  98

Rosicrucians  179-80

Rosman  100

Ross  133-34, 147, 170

Roth  133

Roth, Cecil  47, 140

Rotterdam  97, 99, 108

Rouen  17, 89, 143, 144, 152

Rouse  128

Roussall  132

Royal Society (England)  178, 181

Rubel  94

Rubin, Saul Jacob, rabbi  166, 184, 236

Ruch, Benjamin  74

Rudisill/Rudisell  119

Ruhammah, Ammi  69

Ruine, de  89

Ruock  134

Rupp, I. Daniel  101

Russell  42, 43, 164, 170

Russia  148, 178

Rutgers  98

Rutsen  100

Ruvigny, de  151

Ryan  137

Ryser  85

Sabra  124, 133

Sachs/Sax  168

Sack  161, 168

Saenger  120

Safed  116

Safred  116

Sage  161

St. Albans  175

St. Augustine, Fla.  48, 144, 148

St. Clair  183, 184

St. Croix  98

St. Julian, de  167

St. Kitts (Christopher)  146, 168, 169

St. Leger/St. Leger   13, 55-56

Saintee  125

Saladin/Saladine  113, 116

Salas  31

Salee, van/Sallee  90, 137

Salem  71, 117

Salle  143

Salme  119

Saloman  165; Haym  42, 184

Salome  117

Salter  186

Saltonstall  66

Salvador  147, 158, 164

Salzburgers 165-67, 170

Sammes  162; see also Semmes

Sammis  88

Sampson  66, 79

Sams  148

Samuel/Samuels  134, 177

Sanchez  34

Sanco  174

Sand Mountain  187

Sanders  51, 94

Sanderson, William  14

Sands  52

Sandt, van  134

Sandusky  137

Sandys, Edwin, Sir  52, 63

Sanftleben  166

Sangree  113

Sankey  174

Santa Elena Colony  144

Santen  97

Sarazia  54

Sarfati  39

Sargent  81

Sassin  54

Sassoon  54, 177

Saul/Saull/Sall  117, 177, 184

Saunders  134

Sausssure, de  146

Savage  185

Savannah  184

Savell  67

Saville   19, 20

Savoy  178

Savoy  54

Saxe-Coburg  154

Saxony  178

Saye and Sele, Lord  69, 75-76; see also Fiennes

Saylor  37

Sayre  103

Scandinavians  83

Schaack, van  96, 102

Schaffer  184

Schenk, Leon  159

Scheretz  113

Schermerhorn  100

Schmael  116

Scholl  121

Schollay  185

Schorr  148

Schrag  119

Schrock  119

Schubrein  166

Schuelermann  118

Schuneman  101

Schure, van der  106

Schuyler  94-96

scientists  178-80

Scotland  99, 160, 182, 188

Scots-Irish  36, 38, 121, 146-47, 150, 171-71

Scott  51, 125, 127, 137

Scottish  98, 123, 165-66, 169-71, 185

Scribner  51

Secundus  178

See  119

Sefer Yetzirah  179

Seixas  154, 164, 187

Selitha  126

Sella  175

Sem  83

Semah  83

Semmes  100, 124; see also Sammes

Senior  169

Sequeira  164

Sequoyah  137-38

Seriah  79

Sevier  171, 184

Seymour   11

Shadlock   68

Shahan  132

Shakespeare, William  179

Shardlow  108

Sharick  117

Sharon  126

Sharp  133, 137

Sharpless  117

Shaw  43, 168

Shawnee Indians  120

Sheaffe  100

Shearith Israel, Congregation  93, 103

Sheeley/Schiele  146

Sheftall  165, 168, 184

Shelton  59, 171

Shem  67, 83, 167, 175

Shem Tov  174

Shepard/Sheppard  67, 170

Sherause/Sherouse  168

Shered  155

Sheriff  154, 168

Shiekell  117

Shilleman  118

Shin  112

Shippen  186

ships  55, 94-95, 98, 100, 166, 170:  Abraham 54; Alice 54; Anne 162; Ark 123; Ark Royale 17; Bonaventure 54; The Charming Martha 161; David 54; Dorothy 23; Dove 123; Dragon 72; Elizabeth  23, 54; Gilded Otter 88; Globe 54; Golden Hind 15; Happy Return 132; Henry and Francis 182; Judith 15; King of Prussia 73; Lion 23; Lydia 118; Mayflower  60, 65, 69, 79, 106; Revenge 24; Roebuck 23; Sea Venture 52; Supply 53; The Swan and the Pasha 15; The Seaman’s Secrets 15; Tiger 23

Shirley  63, 96

Shoeck  100

Shore  54

Shubael  66

Shuler  146

Sibyl/Sybilla  101, 126, 171

Siddon/Sidon  117

Sidney:  Philip, Sir  20, 21; Robert (earl of Leicester)  19-20

Sijmen  85

Silesia  166, 170

silk  57, 112, 163-64

Silva/Sylva  47, 86, 90, 124, 146

Silveira  29

Silver  112

Simcha  127

Simcock/Simcocks  109, 127

Simmon  100

Simmons  124, 146

Simon   12, 85, 113-14

Simpson/Simson  42, 43, 132

Sinaia  155

Sinclair  76, 79, 170

Singer/Singar  117

Sinn  113

Sizemore  37

Skene  173, 180, 182-83

Skidmore  134

slaves  28, 30, 31, 41, 48, 55, 66, 94, 98, 162

Slingerland  100

Sliterman/Sluijterman  168

Sloper  162

Slot  89

Sly/Slye  125

Smith  137, 162: John, Capt.  49-51, 181

Sneden  89

Snyder  119

Soderland, Jean R.   109

Solamona  181

Solomon  97, 113, 117-18, 175-77, 179

Solomon’s Builders  184

Solomon’s Lodge #1  184

Somerset  80

Sonntag  113

Sotheby  132-33

Soto, de  32-34, 70, 118, 134, 144, 193

Soule  66

Sousa/Souza  29

South America  83, 86

South Carolina  98, 140-58, 163-64, 167, 184, 224-35

South Sea Bubble  159-60

Southampton  11, 63

Southbe  132

Southell  148

Spanhauer  113

Spanheim  178

Spanish Inquisition  7-9, 14, 18, 34, 45-46, 89, 111, 113, 140-42, 165

Spann  171

Sparks  170

Specker  118

Speculum Sophicum Rhodostauroticum  179

Speelman  85

spice trade  83

Spielmann  52

Spielmann  85

Spinoza, Benedict de  84

Spotswood, Alexander  59

Sprague  67

Spranger  86

Springer  70

Sproule  185

Spyker  118

Staats  97, 99

Stacey  72

Staeck  89

Stark  185

Starkey  96

Starr, Jehosophat  184

Steel(e)  43

Steffey  119

Stegge, Thomas, Capt.  55

Steinman  117

Stephens  162

Stern, Malcolm, rabbi  43-44, 167

Sterner  121

Stewart  37, 43, 168, 170, 184; see also Stuart

Stiles  184

Stille  117

Stobo  148

Stoever  112-13

Stofell  134

Stone  178

Stoner  121

Stonesfer  121

Storer  155

Story  43, 66, 155

Stuart  181, 185

Stuckey/Stucki  118

Stukeley  47

Stultheus, Elias  160

Stuyvesant, Pieter  87, 92

Suasso  164

Suddarth  155

sugar  27, 30, 55, 66, 98, 169

Suire/Sueiro  91

Surinam  178

surnames:  aliases 39, 89; American Jewish  41-44; English  2-3, 14; etymology of 3, 129; Greek 14, 21, 26, 119, 124-25; Jewish 3, 8, 14, 16, 38, 65-66; in Sangre Judia 14; Melungeon  36-37, 161, 169-70; Moroccan 63, 146, 178; Muslim 2, 11, 31, 54; Norman 4, 12-13, 20, 57, 80, 148, 153, 174, 186; Sephardic 3, 14, 29, 33, 43, 192-200; Turkish 89, 111, 113, 116-18, 127

Surry County, Va.  185

Sussan  54

Susseny  119

Swabians  166

Swamp  118

Swan  185

Swanson  117

Swasey  68

Swedish  29, 86, 90, 117-18, 178

Sweet  51, 68, 81

Swerene  178

Swiss  114-15, 119-20, 165-67

Switzer  121

Sylva Sylvarum  180

Sylvester  68

Syme/Symes  58, 162

Symonds  68

Syng  186

Syria  116, 174

Taaffe  117

Tabbs  124

Tabitha  126, 128, 155

Tagger/Tajer  142

Taine/Tayne/Toynie  87-89

Taino Indians  29, 31

Talbot  187

Taliaferro  164

Talley  37

Tamar  66, 111


Tamarlane  126

Tamer  116

Tangier  91

Tankersley  37

Tannatt  169

Tanneke  88

Targe  142

Tartre  54

tau  134

Tauth/Toth  113

Tauvron  143

Tavares  29

Tavares/Tavarez  143

Tawwey  134

Tay, du  142

Taylor  126

Taylor, Alan  136

Telfair  164-65; Museum of Art  164

Templars  173-74, 180, 186

Temple  68, 76, 116, 167

Tench  135

Tennant  169

Tennessee  136-37, 161

Terck  116

Terrin  89

Terry  50

tetragrammaton  179

Teulon/Tholan  154

Teunis  91

Thau  113

Theiis  146

Tholon  154

Thomas  117

Thomas, James Walter  123

Thompson  43

Thorius  154

Thoth  184

tikkun olam  181

Tilghman  133-36

Tilley  66

Tillotson  124-25

Timmerman  117

Timothy  146

Tingell  126

Tishell  117

Titus  116

Tizack  117

Toaes  128

tobacco  55, 123, 160

Tobago  86-87

Tobias  147

Toccoa  154

Toeni, de  89

Tomes  168

Tondee/Tondie  168, 184

Tonti  168

Toohy/Touhey  53, 70, 134

Tookey  70

Tool  118

Toomer  186

Toro  148, 154

Torres  28

Tough  112

Toule  118

Toulon  141

Toulouse  140-41, 152, 154

Tourneir  89

Tov  117, 121

Tovey/Tawey  134

Toweison, William  19

Tower  162

Town & Country 103, 216-17

Town/Towne  70

Trachsel see Troxell

Tradescant  178

transcendentalism  82

tree of life  179

Tremayne   23

Tremi  89

Treutlin  166

Trevas  54

Trobe, La  153

Trower  126

Troxell  119, 120, 121

Truan/Trujan  168

Trujillo  34

Trustees of Georgia  163

Tryon  186

Tuch/Tuchmann  185

Tuckey  185

Tukey  185

Tulliere, du  88

Tumar  186

Tunisia  89, 91, 106, 155

Tupper  185

Turck  101

Turks  11, 39, 54, 68, 90, 106, 116; see also Ottoman Empire
spies and espionage  9, 19, 179

Turnepenny, Zachary  178

Tuscany  178

Tuscarora  Indians  50

Tuscher  118

Twisleton  76

Tyne  69

Tyre  69

Union Society  185

Unselt  166

Urgel  140

Usselinx  90

Utz  121

Uzes  140

Uziel  89

Uzille  89-90

Valentine  42, 43, 113, 184

Valleau  142

Van der Zee, James  90

Van/Vann  170, 188

VanBibber /Van Bebber  125

VanBrugh  185

Vanderbilt  103

Vanderpool  155

VanWyck  185

Varenne, de  150

Vashti  154

Vasquez  31, 144

Vassall  66

Vaughn  137

Vaux  89

Vaz/Vass  41

Vee  91

Velazquez, Diego  30

Venice  178

Venn  66

Verelst  162, 163

Vermeille  88

Vermillion  112

Vernon  162

Verral  74

Verveelen  88

Victoria, queen of Great Britain  154, 177

Vidau  54

Vigil  34

Villareal  31

Vincent/Vincente  143

Viola  119

Violette  138

Virginia  45, 46-59; Freemasons  184, 187; lists of immigrants  204-12

Virginia Company  12, 20, 51-53

Vizard  134

Vlatfoete  84

Voeux, des  151

Vogel  85, 168

Vogullar, Abram  29

Vriedman  127

Vries, de  41, 86, 95

Waldensians  114

Waldman, Felicia  175-76

Wali  112

Wall Street  92

Wallen/Walden  37, 50

Walley  112

Wallis  162

Walloons  41, 53, 62, 87-91, 114, 181

Walsingham, Sir Francis  19, 21

Walton, Izaak  178

Wampler  37, 118-19

Wannamaker  146

Ward   11, 136, 184

Wardell/Wardwell   68, 70

Wardlaw  146

Warner  184, 185

Warren  184, 185

Warrenton, N.C.  185

Warwick  78

Washam  132

Washington  58, 135; George  183, 184

Watauga  136, 161, 171

Waterman  187

Waters  106

Watie  188

Watson  43

Way  168

Webber  188

Weise  161

Welcome  41

Welsh  66, 147

Wesley  99

West  43, 77, 99, 162

West Country gentlemen  10-12, 14, 54

Weston  61, 63

Wexler, Paul  25

Whaley  146

Wharton  178

Whipple  187

Whitaker, Alexander, Rev.  52

White  43, 161, 170, 187; John 49-51

Whitehead  43

Whitehead, Alfred North  139

Whitney  179

Wickes/Wicks  134

Widdos  116

Wiesenthal, Simon  1-2, 8

Wiggans  see Wiggins

Wiggins  50, 168

Wild  147

Wilder  65

Willey  134

William II  149

William III  85

William the Conqueror  4, 76, 129

Williams  43, 50, 51, 68, 187

Wilmer  127

Wilson/Wilsen  43, 85

Wingate  134

Wingfield, Edward  51

Winston  58

Winthrop, John  60, 66

Wise  69, 155, 161, 168, 184

Wiseman  53

witchcraft  70-72, 78

Wizgan  168

Wolf/Wolff/Wolfe  37, 97 , 113, 118-19

Wood  43, 47

Woodward  145-46, 185

Wool  185

Woolley  99

Worrell  126

Wragg  148

Wren  51

Wren, Christopher, Sir  178

Wright  117, 171

Wright, Dudley  177

Wrightsboro  171-72

Wurteh  138

Wurzburg  166

Wyatt  52

Xavier  171

Yacam  116

Yale  69, 103

Yarach  112, 187

Yates  37, 43, 51, 100, 163

Yeamans  145

Yehudit  177

Yemen  145

Yiddish names  121, 126, 155

Yingling  121

Yoachim  116

Yoder  119

Yoel  57

Yomtov  124, 133

York County, Pa.  114-15, 120

Yorke, Sir John  18

Yorkshire  18, 62

Young  43, 137

Yulee  41

Zacharias  116

Zaltman  112

Zanes  117

Zapati  118

Zappali  118

Zarban  117

Zeh  113

Zenger  94

Zepp  119

Zeruiah  79

Zevi  119

Ziegler  146

Zimmerman  114

Zimri  171

Zinn  117

Zipporah  85, 132, 137

Zook  see  Zug

Zorn  166

Zorobabel  128

Zouche   11

Zuckermann, Adolph  140

Zug  116, 119

Zumbrum  119

Zypergus  89


Craig Martense commented on 01-Mar-2015 04:44 PM

I bought this book after my DNA test showed Ashkenazi and Iberian ancestry I was formerly unaware of. I've found it invaluable in discovering which families would have been of Jewish descent and now have a better understanding of these ancestor's and their origins.

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Where Do I Come From: Donald Yates

Monday, July 29, 2013

Where Do I Come From

Real People's DNA Stories 

Sizemore Indians and British Jews

By Donald N. Yates

As soon as EURO DNA was released last month I quickly studied my new list of European nationalities where I have significant ancestral lines according to DNA Consultants' new autosomal population analysis. I had come to know and accept, of course, the usual suspects, compiled from the 24 populations available from ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes). But the new list represented 71 populations and far surpassed ENFSI or any other database in commercial use. It had, for instance, the first European comparisons for countries like Hungary, Lithuania, Malta and Iceland. So how would my familiar matches—Scotland, Ireland, England, Belgium and the rest—shake out in the new oracle?

Some of the top matches—above British Isles or Northern European ancestry—were Central European. Here were the top 20:

Rank European Population Matches
1 Slovakia – Saris (n=848)
2 Finland (n = 469)
3 Slovakia – Zemplin (n=558)
4 Netherlands  (n = 231)
5 Slovakia – Spis (n=296)
6 Romanian - Transylvanian - Szekler (n = 257)
7 Romanian - Transylvanian - Csango (n = 220)
8 Scotland/Dundee (n = 228)
9 Switzerland (n = 200)
10 England/Wales (n = 437)
11 Ireland (n = 300)
12 Italy (n =103)
13 Denmark  (n = 156)
14 Romanian (n=243)
15 Swedish (n = 311)
16 Serbian - Serbia / Vojvodina / Montenegro (n = 100)
17 Icelandic (n=151)
18 Estonia (n = 150)
19 Romanian - Transylvania/Banat (n = 219)
20 Norwegian (n=1000)

Slovakia? Romania? To be sure, I had always had a fascination with both countries. In my salad days I studied in Europe and traveled to Bratislava, where I fell in love at first sight with the chiseled blonde visage of a friend of my university classmate. And I had also been to Romania in the days of its Communist regime, when my long-haired travel companion and I were welcomed like long lost relatives or conquering pop heroes. 

Admittedly, the results of an autosomal ancestry test are cumulative and combinatory. While they do reflect all your ancestry, as no other test can, you are cautioned not to use the matches to try to pinpoint lines in your family genealogy. There is always a temptation to over-interpret. 

My European admixture results from AncestryByDNA had yielded a confirmatory result:  20% Southeast Europe. That struck me at the time as odd. Yet Hungarian was now one of my top metapopulation results, too. (Remember, Hungarian data did not figure into ENFSI because Hungary is not in the European Union.)

The Scottish (my grandmother was a McDonald) made sense, as did all the other matches from what I knew through years of paper genealogy research. But I was unaware of any strong Central European lines.

Sizemore Research:  Pitfalls of Genetic Genealogy
Then I recalled the Sizemores. My great-great-grandmother was a Sizemore, and they were multiply connected with my Coopers, my mother's maiden name. Could the Central European effect in my EURO result be from the Sizemores?

Much ink—or at least many keystrokes—has been expended on the Sizemore controversy. There are pitched battles on genealogy forums and edit wars in cyberspace. One armed camp has them down as Melungeons and admixed Cherokees with crypto-Jewish strains. Another holds it as an article of faith that the Sizemores were a lily-white old Virginia British family and the surname comes from something like Sigismund (think Goetterdaemmerung). Y chromosome DNA shows ambiguous conclusions:  you can visit the advertisement page sponsored by Family Tree DNA. 

Alan Lerwick, a Salt Lake City genealogist, upset the apple cart some years ago by linking America's Sizemores to Michael Sismore, buried in the Flemish cemetery of the Collegiate Church of St Katherine by the Tower in London in 1684. That was the same parish as my Coopers lived in. Then and now, it is the most Jewish section of London.

Sizemore is not a British surname before the sixteenth century. It was clear to me long ago that neither my Sizemores nor my Coopers were Mama Bear, Papa Bear families. Spurred by my EURO DNA test results, I dug into my subscription at Ancestry.com and learned that Michael Sismore was recorded as being born as Michael Seasmer in Ashwell, an important village in north Hertfordshire, November 1, 1620. His parents were Edward Seasmer and Betterissa (a form of Beatrice). New information! Alert the list moderators and surname project guardians!

Seasmer is undoubtedly the same as Zizmer, an old Central European Jewish surname adduced in multiple families in Israel, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria, Russia, Moldavia and the United States. Edward and Michael are favored first-names in the U.S. branches. The Hebrew letters, which can be viewed on numerous burials in Israel, are  (in reverse order, right to left) RMZZ. Cooper is a similar Jewish surname, common in Russia and Lithuania and Israel as well as the British Isles and the U.S. In fact, my father's surname, Yates, is a Hebrew anagram common in the same countries, meaning "Righteous Convert."

Hertfordshire was an important center for British Jewry, mentioned in the works of Hyamson, Jacobs and others (see map above). A good hypothesis to explain the transformation of Michael's name from Seasmer to Sismore and thence to Sizemore is this. His grandfather, a Zizmer, came to England in the time of Elizabeth, perhaps via the Low Lands, possibly as a soldier or cloth merchant. This could account for Michael Sizemore's burial in the Flemish cemetery of St Katharine's by the Tower, usually reserved for foreigners. It also explains the predilection in descendants for such names as Ephraim, Michael, Edward, William, John, Richard, James, George, Hiram, Isaac, Samuel, Solomon and Henry. And why girls were named Lillie, Lydia, Louisa, Naomi, Pharaba, Rebecca, Sarah and Vitula. The last name (also found in my wife's grandmother's name) was a Jewish amulet name. It meant "old woman" in Latin and was given to a child to augur a long life. 

Zismer took the form of Cismar, Cismarik, Zhesmer, Zizmor, Ziesmer, Zausmer, Cismaru and Tzismaro—all amply attested in the records of European Jewry, including Jewish Gen's Holocaust Database, with the records of over two million victims and survivors of the Nazi genocide of World War II. I am proud of my Jewish heritage through my great-grandmother and through my half-blood Cherokee Indian mother Bessie Cooper Yates. 

Thank you for indulging me in this genealogical excursion into a family mystery. Like the restaurateur, I would be to blame if I didn't eat in my own establishment. I can confidently say that DNA Consultants' new EURO DNA is a smorgasbord of genetic delights for those jaded by the old-fashioned sex-linked testing. I thank our R&D team, in particular Professor Wendell Paulson, our head statistics consultant, along with all those who helped vet its amazing power, and I encourage you to try it today!


Zoltan commented on 13-Sep-2013 03:48 PM

About Seizmore. If it really relates to Zizmer, Cismar etc. then it is a pure Hungarian surename: Csizm√°r, with the meaning of boot maker (Csizma=boot from the old turkish word of cizme)
Please note that the refferred areas of Slovakia and Transylvania are former Hungarian territories, so the connection is clear and matches with your DNA.

I do not know when you wrote the article but Hungary is in the EU since 2005.

I hope I could help.

cristina commented on 09-Nov-2014 02:27 AM

In Romanian also, until today, the name for boot maker is Cizmar, and also the name Cizmar, Cizmaru is a common one - from old turkish word of cizma = boot. Many names cover the describing occupation of the village / little towns inhabitants. In the same time, many jews from Hungaria, Romania (and so on in Central Europe) was workers - occupation: 'cizmari' - who took these names gived by the community.
Anyway, great job here, congrats !

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True Story of King Arthur

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

What if the real King Arthur was not the Christian hero we immediately think of but a pagan or Jew? Not a comedic King Arthur like the one in Monty Python and the Holy Grail whose possible worst peril was to battle knights who say “Ni.” Or T.H. White’s delightful and imaginary medieval England in “The Once and Future King,” where Arthur as a boy was turned into various creatures like a hawk by Merlin, so that he could learn to fly. That is clearly fantasy. So is Sean Connery as an older Arthur in The First Knight whose adversary is the philosophical Richard Gere as Lancelot.

But what if we could cut and paste some of the Arthurian legend and his tales in Avalon in a history book? This is not beyond possibility. There are historians who have either made the case for resurrecting King Arthur or who have not altogether discounted the possibility of a historical King Arthur. According to the distinguished historian, Geoffrey Ashe, in his book, The Discovery of King Arthur, he was “lucky enough to find a way through, and press on to a fruitful outcome”…giv[ing] Arthur a firmer status in history…mak[ing] him more interesting-more like his legend- than appeared probable a few years ago.”  And he says there are reasons to believe King Arthur may have had descendants. Perhaps King Arthur is in your family tree. Who knows?

Of course, we know the story. According to a recent BBC article, “King Arthur Tales ‘Penned in Oxford Chapel’,” the cleric, Geoffrey of Monmouth, wrote of King Arthur, and Guinever at St. George’s chapel. However, since he was also the standard for history on British kings, might he have not based it on something he knew that was a fact? He is best known for his work History of the Kings of Britain.

And if there was a real King Arthur, who was he? Even among historians who think a King Arthur is plausible, they do not agree on who the candidate is.

Ashe contends that he was a British king, Riothamus, who was on the continent during the correct time period (469-470) and whose career follows closely to the life of the King Arthur we are familiar with. Indeed, he was the “only British King who led an army into Gaul,” and he “disappears after a fatal battle, without any recorded death” among other coincidences. He argues that Riothamus was a title as its original form would have meant “High King” (96-97).

But there are others with different ideas. Stephen Knight, in his review of the historiographer, N.J. Higham’s, book King Arthur: Myth Making and History says Higham remains unconvinced that we will ever know if there is a King Arthur, or that it is important, but calling him an “agnostic” is not entirely dismissive of a historical King Arthur. However, he is “dismissive of Riothamus” and thinks the next more likely candidate is the historical figure Ambrosius Aurelianus. Aurelianus, according to Princeton University’s webpage, “Ambrosius Aurelianus,” was a “war leader of the Romano-Britsh against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century.” But Higham thinks the most likely candidate for King Arthur is Lucius Artorius Castos, a Roman military commander in the 2nd – 3rd century AD (L.A.Malcor in “The Heroic Age”). Unfortunately, Knight notes, although this is a well-researched book, he does not clarify the reasons for his choices.

As if there were not enough, what if one tosses in a bit of the Arabian Nights in the Arthurian legend? According to Donald Yates and Elizabeth Hirschman, in their upcoming book, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales, Arthur might have Arabic and North- African roots:

The origin of the name Arthur has been endlessly debated. It is almost certainly not “Celtic,” neither from a P or Q dialect, and cannot be traced further back than post-Roman times. The center of gravity for its appearance is the sixth century. In 1998, archeological excavations at sixth-century Tintagel brought to light a find subsequently dubbed the Arthur Stone, mentioning the name Artognou, claimed to be cognate. Although the reading is questionable perhaps this inscription and milieu are on the right track.

Arthur’s name has become something of a grail quest for modern researchers. Other theories derive the name from Artorius (Roman or Messapic), Arnthur (Etruscan), Arcturus (the “bear star”) or *Arto-uiros in Brittonic (“bear man”).

Perhaps the Gordian knot of the difficulty can be cut if we consider that many of the names in early Welsh history have Arabic and North African roots.

And perhaps we can one day trace the ancestry of King Arthur for sure. Celtic? British? Cornish? English? North African? Roman? Sephardic Jewish? Pick one or more.

Photo:  King Arthur in an eighteenth-century illustration for a play by John Dryden shows him in antique Roman costume. Copyright The Trustees of the British Museum. 

North Africans in Early Britain [blog post]


jan Franz commented on 22-May-2013 07:56 PM

As a McArthur myself... I direct you to Clan Arthur's site. He is claimed as a Scot with quite a bit of interesting history!

Erica commented on 21-Jun-2013 11:30 AM

what is the sample type? Can I send it, or you have special collection sites??
Thank you,

Abigail Quart commented on 17-Sep-2013 09:00 AM

Arthur is Artur which means "strong child" in Sumerian cuneiform. Also, "womb."

If you want to go hunting, Galahad and Merlin are also generic designations from those good old days but Guinevere is Egyption, "Hentnefer" meaning "beautiful queen."

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Britain's First Jew Was a Woman

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

And Her Name Was Pomponia Graecina

The following excerpt is taken from Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Donald N. Yates, The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales:  A Genetic and Genealogical History (forthcoming Summer 2013 from McFarland & Co. Publishers).

If Roman Britain had cities, and we know it did, there were Jews in them. In fact, we have a tantalizing record of what may be the first British Jew. Pomponia Graecina was the aristocratic wife of the conqueror of Britain, the commander Aulus Plautius, who defeated the sons of Cunobelinus (Shakespeare’s Cymbeline), seized the Celtic or Belgic capital of Camulodunum (Colchester) in Essex and secured the conquest of Britain for the emperor Claudius in 43 ce. Plautius became the first governor of the new colony. It is reasonable to think his wife lived with him during his governorship (43-47).

Ten years later, Pomponia Graecina was put on trial in Rome for a crime of character described as a “foreign superstition.” She was a member of the imperial Julio-Claudian family. The same charge was brought about the same time against Poppaea, the future wife of Nero. Poppaea was rumored to be privately a Jewish convert and to favor Jews.[i] Although many commentators and fiction writers believe Pomponia Graecina’s crime was the practice of Christianity, in the year 57 this would have been extremely unlikely. There were at that time very few Christians anywhere outside of Galilee. The apostles Peter and Paul were not yet dead. No Gospels had been set down in writing yet. In Rome Christians were a rarity far into the second century. They were so exotic even in the East that around 112 ce Pliny the Younger, then governor of Pontus and Bithynia, wrote the emperor Trajan for advice on how to identify and deal with them.[ii]

The Christian epigrapher Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1879 associated Pomponia with family members buried in the catacombs of St. Callistus in the third century. She was gradually transformed into the apocryphal St. Lucina, even figuring in the historical novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz, Quo Vadis. But a gap of over a hundred and fifty years seriously weakens de Rossi’s theory. Sand identifies Pomponia Graecina as a Jewish convert, not a Christian.[iii]  She survived her husband by twenty years and died about 83 ce.

            Christianity struggled for several centuries to differentiate and distance itself from Judaism. Many of Britain’s Jews around 300 were undoubtedly “semi-converts—people who formed broad peripheries around the Jewish community, took part in its ceremonies, attended the synagogues, but did not keep all the commandments.”[iv] After the legalization of Christianity by Constantine in 313, some Jews and “semi-Jews” presented themselves publicly as Christian, while thinking of themselves and their ancestors as still wholly Jewish. Sometimes families were divided in their allegiances. Timothy of the New Testament had a Jewish grandmother, Lois, and Jewish mother, Eunice, but a Greek father. When Timothy converted to Christianity in his native Anatolia, the apostle Paul performed a ceremony of circumcision on him (Acts 16:1-3). Most of Christianity’s early converts came from Jews. Paul made a habit of preaching in synagogues.

As the Christianization of the Roman Empire accelerated during the fourth century, circumcision was forbidden to males who were not born Jews, the practice of converting one’s slaves to Judaism or of owning Christian slaves was proscribed, Jewish women who were not born Jewish were barred from ritual baths and Jewish men of all persuasions were outlawed from marrying Christian women.[v] Endogamy—marrying cousins and other close relations—became ingrained among Jews attempting to hold themselves apart from Christians. All these developments tended to make secret Jews out of people who defiantly regarded themselves as Jewish and honored the commandments of Judaism to varying degrees, often without benefit of a rabbi, community, synagogue or Torah. It was not until the eleventh century that the Hebrew language was introduced to Europe, and its dissemination was spotty. Moreover, that Hebrew was no product of an autochthonous linguistic development, but the artificial creation of Jewish scholars.[vi] In the rift, which covered most of the Middle Ages, the vast majority of European Jews were totally ignorant of Hebrew and were probably also not acquainted with rabbinical Judaism as it took shape in Judea and Western Asia.

Christianity’s final triumph put an end to all proselytizing by Jews “and perhaps also prompted the desire to erase it from Jewish history.”[vii] In the centuries that followed, especially after the rise of Islam, rabbis and other keepers of the collective memory were pained by the apostasy of the Jewish people on such a continuingly large scale. They sought to deny what was obvious, considering anyone who gave up their Jewishness “dead.” “Zionist historiography . . . [turned] its back on any meaningful discussion of the issue,” writes Sand. “Abandoning the Jewish religion was generally interpreted by modern sensibilities as betraying the ‘nation,’ and was best forgotten.”[viii]

Photo:  A Roman crypto-Jewish family. Copyright The Trustees of the British Museum.

[i] Josephus, Ant. Iud. XX.viii.11, p. 423.

[ii] Pliny the Younger, Letters 10.96-97.

[iii] Sand 171.

[iv] Ibid 171-72.

[v] Ibid 177.

[vi] “During the first millennium ce, Jewish believers in Europe knew no Hebrew or Aramaic” (ibid 208). It remained for the twentieth century to “revive” Hebrew as a living language.

[vii] Ibid 174.

[viii] Ibid 182.



Richard III's New Winter of Discontent

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Shakespeare painted the last of the York rulers of England as a murderous maniac who was rightly dispatched to hell by Henry Tudor in 1485. But the story of Richard III's skeleton supposedly dug up last year in a parking lot may top that of the Bard for pulling the wool over our eyes. Or it may be the luckiest archeological find since King Tut . . . . 

The last of the York dynasty was buried in Greyfriars, Leicester, but Britons are now talking about re-interring the bones believed to be Richard's in Westminster Cathedral with England's other beloved monarchs. In 2012, a writer from Edinburgh, Philippa Langley, was walking over a particular spot in the municipal parking lot when she got goosebumps and "absolutely knew I was walking on his grave." Langley helped fund an archeological excavation and on February 4, 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that a skeleton found in the excavation was, "beyond reasonable doubt," that of Richard III, based on a combination of evidence from radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his slight frame, and a comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York. 

Hunches and Hunchbacks

According to a BBC article, “Richard III: The Twisted Bones that Reveal a King,” the skeleton had a “striking curvature” that could only be that of the hunchback king. But according to a Daily Beast article, “Unraveling King Richard III’s Secrets,” Shakespeare wrote a century after the fact and had a pro-Tudor, anti-York political agenda. “Portraits made after his defeat that show Richard with a hump- or at least uneven shoulders- are suspect as Tudor propaganda.” There is no historical evidence of Richard III having a “striking curvature” of the spine. Or even “uneven shoulders.”  There is no evidence beyond Shakespeare of his deformity. In fact, there is historical evidence to the contrary. The article, “Richard’s Comeback,” quotes the historian, Thomas More, as saying Richard III was of “bodily shape comely enough, onely (sic) of low stature.” The Countess of Desmond reported that, at a royal ball, Richard was the ‘“handsomest man in the room . . . except for his brother, Edward, and was very well made." 

Despite historical evidence, most articles that discuss remaining doubts about the case like, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester body is Richard III,” miss this point and take it as a historical fact that Richard III had scoliosis as does the skeleton that has been found in the parking lot.

What of historical depictions of Richard III’s face? “No portraits made during his lifetime have survived  and some later copies show signs of having been altered to make him appear more sinister” (“ Richard III: The Twisted Bones”). Nevertheless, a 3D scan of the skull was taken, and a 3D face created and painted. Ashdown –Hill is quoted as telling the BBC in the article, “Richard III Facial Reconstruction Reveals Slain King More than 500 Years After His Death,”that it “largely matched” the “prominent features” in posthumous representations of the king. The artist, Janine Aitken said her part was “interpretive not scientific.” At least it is a pleasant face. But is it Richard III’s face?

Jumping to Forensic Conclusions

And the skeleton includes 10 battle wounds showing Richard III “met a violent death…”eight to the head and two to the body—which they believe were inflicted at or around the time of death. Since he died in a battle, did not other soldiers meet untimely wounds in such a manner?

Not a few scientists are waiting for peer-reviewed results. But there are none. Instead of waiting for a boring academic conference, the sponsors at the Richard III Society chose to release the results via a Hollywood style press conference. 

What kind of DNA analysis was used? Mitochondrial DNA. According to Bryony Jones in his CNN article, “Body Found under Parking Lot is King Richard III, Scientists Prove,” “the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the bones was matched to Michael Ibsen, a Canadian cabinetmaker and direct descendant of Richard III’s sister, Anne of York, and a second distant relative who wishes to remain anonymous.” Well, end of story and close that book. Right? Not so fast. Some scientists believe that the testing done was not sufficient. Why?

Mitochondrial DNA has limitations. It does reflect the deepest ancestry [see The Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes], but is also prone to contamination [under such circumstances]( Pappas). Especially when we are discussing skeletons reminiscent of Night of the Living Dead interred improperly for centuries in damp soil. Timothy Bestor, Professor of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center, is quoted in the NY Academy of Sciences article, “Skeletal Remains of King Richard III Reportedly Discovered,” as saying that the possible quality of the [mitochondrial] DNA [under the given circumstances] was one of his key reasons for skepticism. “’After 500 years or more in a wet environment like England’s, “‘the microbes are going to degrade the DNA. It’s just food to them, ‘” says Dr. Bestor.  And Pappas quotes Maria Avila, a computational biologist at the Center for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum as saying, “The DNA results presented today are too weak, as they stand, to support the claim that [the] DNA [sample] is actually from Richard III…more in depth DNA analysis summed to the archaeological and osteological [bone analysis] results would make a round story [She is requesting Autosomal DNA analysis akin to what was done with the hominin discovery of the Denisovans].”  And she wonders about contamination with the type of DNA testing that was done. Avila says that, “Before being convinced of ANY atDNA study, it should be explicit that all possible cautions were taken to avoid contamination” and … “ also warned that people could share mitochondrial DNA even if they share a family tree” ( Pappas). The article, “Doubts Remain that the Leicester Body is Richard III,” a Mark Thomas at University College London is quoted as saying that “people can have matching mitochondrial DNA by chance and not be related.”

And Bestor asserts there other reasons to be skeptical, even though “Richard Buckley, lead archeologist from the University of Leicester, asserts ‘“this is beyond reasonable doubt’” based on genetic and historical forensic evidence.” Bestor argues that beyond the high risk of sample contamination, there are three other “particularly complicating factors.”  Of course, it is often an overlooked fact that “the English aristocracy reproduced within a closed gene pool in order to preserve lineages. This inbreeding results in consanguinity” (“Skeletal Remains of King Richard III”).  Dr. Bestor is quoted as saying, “ You may have the same mitochondrial haplotype, but that does not guarantee a lineal descent from a given individual.” [ Mitochondrial DNA analysis is not the same as Y haplotype DNA analysis because it focuses on deeper ancestry whereas male haplotype DNA analysis is linked to more recent male lines ]. He also points out the possibility of adoption. [The possibility of an adoption or any type of non-paternity event increases as one delves back into the distant past of any family tree]:

Another confounding factor is that, in the 17-25 generations separating King Richard’s sister from her extant relatives, there is a fair chance that children of deceased parents’ may have been adopted by their parents’ siblings somewhere along the way. After all, medieval lives were short. Such adoptions may have been kept private and excluded from historical or genealogical records. 


Moreover, Bestor points out that the “genetic sequences and statistical data are yet to be released” but adds that the “historical evidence is quite compelling.” According to this article, forensic evidence of the bones (1455-1540)matches with the time that Richard III was to have died ( 1485). But didn’t many people die at this same time during the same battle with similar wounds?

Astonishing or Unbelievable? Watch the University of Leicester's Full Press Conference 


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Elizabeth Hirschman, Modern Pioneer

Friday, December 07, 2012
Check Out DNA Fingerprint Plus $300 

Behind the Numbers:  Elizabeth Hirschman

  (Part Two of a Series)

We interviewed Rutgers marketing professor Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman, author of several books and articles incorporating DNA in her research, to hear her personal story in our continuing series about the people behind the scenes in the field of DNA testing.


Elizabeth Hirschman with MBA students at Rutgers in December 2009.

When did you first get interested in DNA?

ECH: I got interested in DNA testing around 2000 when I discovered I was Melungeon after reading Brent Kennedy's 1994 book. Brent suggested several different ancestries that possibly contributed to the Melungeon population and I wanted to find out which of these were correct and which ones I had. I already suspected Jewish ancestry because of the naming patterns in my family over the past 300 years, as well as some of their habits --e.g., not eating pork, getting married in a home instead of a church, cleaning house on Friday afternoon, no eggs with blood spots, washing all meat, etc. We also had some genetic anomalies -- shovel teeth (sinodonty), palatal tori and large rear cranial extensions, as well as polydactylism.

Tell us more.


ECH:  Over the course of the past decade I have been found to have Native American, Spanish, Ashkenazi Jewish, African, Mediterranean and Gypsy/Northwestern India ancestry. My Dad turned out to have substantial Gypsy and African ancestry. He and I share a large cranial rear extension that I believe likely comes from the African ancestry -- the photos I have seen of the !Kung Bushmen look just like our head shapes. My Mom has Native American and/or Sino-Siberian ancestry. She also possessed the Asian teeth and palatal tori found in this group.

You've written several books and articles with Donald Yates; how did that come about?

ECH:  We shared ancestry from the Coopers, a prominent pioneer family in Daniel Boone’s time. In 2000, I wrote him out of the blue when he was a professor in Georgia and introduced myself and asked if possibly the Coopers were Jewish. We began to correspond by email. I told him I was sure one of the reasons I was working so hard to figure out the Melungeon story was because I had to figure out who I am. “Up until last year,”  I remember telling him, “I thought I was Scotch-Irish, English , white and Presbyterian.” It was a big transition to Sephardic, brown and Jewish. It turned out that we were distant cousins and had numerous links in our Melungeon ancestry.

What was a typical publication?

ECH: One article was called “Suddenly Melungeon! Reconstructing Consumer Identity Across the Color Line.” This was published by Routledge in 2007 in a handbook on consumer culture theory edited by Russell Belk.  


How did the Jewish findings play out?


ECH:  On a personal level, both Don and I, as well as his wife Teresa, returned to Judaism, he and Teresa in Savannah and I in New Jersey. On a professional level, we started the Melungeon Surname DNA Project, which focused on Scottish clan and Melungeon surnames (i.e., male or Y chromosome lines), and later included Native American mitochondrial DNA.  Initially, many people in the genetic genealogy community were frustrated that the incoming Jewish DNA results were not originating in the Middle East, as they had strongly believed and hoped, but were showing a lot of Khazar, Central Asian, Eastern European and Western European/Spanish/French input.

Can you elaborate?

ECH:  Critics were not happy that DNA was proving a wider and more inclusive picture of the Jewish people. Where Don and I have performed a service, I believe, is by just following the DNA trail and accepting new findings (e.g., the Gypsy/Roma) when they come in, instead of clinging to an a priori theory/belief/wish, for instance, the claim of a Middle Eastern origin for the majority of Jews.

What tests have you ordered from DNA Consultants?


ECH: I ordered every test as they became available over the years, first the Y chromosome and mitochondrial or male-line and female-line tests and later the autosomal or DNA fingerprint tests that analyze your total ancestry.  I helped organize the first autosomal Melungeon study by contributing samples from my mother and brother and obtaining samples from well-known Melungeons like Brent Kennedy and his brother Richard. Increasingly, our testing took on the aspect of a family group study. For instance, I was able by comparing multiple results from relatives to reconstruct my father’s ancestry quite satisfactorily, even though he died many years ago. I took the Rare Genes from History for all available family members. There is a streak of the Thuya Gene and First Peoples Gene in all of us, as well as the Sinti Gene (which is Gypsy), while my brother Dick got our father’s Khoisan Gene, which is African. Incidentally, it has the same source as the !Kung people and head shape I mentioned before.

If you had H. G. Wells' time machine where would you go?


ECH: I would love to be able to visit my ancestors and see what they looked like, where they lived, how they lived and learn how they got to Appalachia from such disparate parts of the world. I wish I could talk with them. My project now is to visit all the places they are known to have come from and see what the architecture, climate, food, and people are like. That is about as close to "meeting" them as I will be able to get. So far, I’ve traveled to Scotland, Ireland, Wales, England, Spain, Tunisia and Morocco on the trail of my Sephardic Jewish ancestors. I am trying to get to the Silk Road to see Central Asia, Turkey and Northwest India in the near future.

Professor Hirschman has published over 200 journal articles and academic papers in marketing, consumer behavior, sociology, psychology and semiotics. She is past President of the Association for Consumer Research and American Marketing Association-Academic Division. Professor Hirschman was named one of the Most Cited Researchers in Economics and Business by the Institute for Scientific Information in 2009; this recognition is given to the top .5% of scholars in a given field.  


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Right Pew, Wrong Church

Sunday, January 15, 2012
Do You Have the DNA of Roman-British-Thracian Soldiers in Your Male Line?
Probably Not.

A member of the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) wrote an article online five years ago. Now a substantial number of listers on the discussion board DNA-Genealogy-L believe their male lines may go back to a Balkan legionnaire in Roman Britain. This theory has been enshrined in popular belief, thanks to ISOGG members, who contribute most of the material on Y chromosome DNA to Wikipedia articles.

Read our review from an appendix on Jewish DNA hot spots in England and Wales in our book-in-progress, New Jerusalem:  The Story of Britain's Earliest Jews and Muslims.

Steven Bird in “Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin,” is, as the title makes clear, most interested in proving a Roman Balkan origin for the haplotype he investigates, now known as Elblbla, the most common type of the haplogroup Elblb (formerly denominated E3b) in Europe. The structure and subclades of this very ancient North African Caucasian lineage have only recently been resolved and overhauled, and the ink is not yet quite dry. But the data used by Bird with the sometimes confused or outdated nomenclature of older reports can still provide valuable clues for our purposes, although one must proceed with caution in making too many differentiations in the tangled branches of the E tree. We must bear in mind that the target haplotype E1b1b1a2 (also called E-V13) represents 85% of the parent haplogroup E1b1b (also denoted as the E-M78 clade) and keep simple E before us without being distracted.

            Bird’s study appeared in one of the first publications of the Journal of Genetic Genealogy, an online journal of the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG), founded in 2005 by DNA project administrators of the commercial DNA testing company Family Tree DNA based in Houston, Texas, “who share the common vision of the promotion and education of genetic genealogy.” It is an ambitious work with a very small goal. It uses arguments not only from genetics and statistics but also archeology, geography, history, anthropology and linguistics, often involving such fine points as the epigraphy of a Spanish soldier’s diploma from the British Museum issued in 103 CE and the detailed movements of Thracian cohors II and VII in the Roman army. Where angels fear to thread. Bird’s theory about the origins of Elblb have been enshrined in popular belief. We do not wish to appear ungrateful but there are problems.

            Bird’s first mistake occurs in his review of the literature. He misreads Stephen Oppenheimer and represents the author of The Origins of the British as having British E “originating from the Balkan peninsula (26).” If we open Oppenheimer’s book to the page cited (207) we see a map illustrating “Near Eastern [British English for American English ‘Middle Eastern’] Neolithic male migrations via the Mediterranean of E3b [i.e. E1b1b] and J.” The vector standing for the migration of these types launches forth from the Peloponnese in Greece at the cropped lower right corner, obviously intending to suggest origins from that general direction, not “the Balkan peninsula.”  There is no mention of Balkan DNA in Oppenheimer except as part of the bigger picture. The archeological sites Bird adduces as evidence for E settlements in the Bronze Age are not necessarily associated “directly” or solely or chiefly with “proto-Thracian culture,” whatever that term may mean. Nova Zagora in Bulgaria is a Stone Age multi-site. Ezero Culture occupied most of Bulgaria and extended far north into the Danube region of Romania. Yunatsite, Dubene-Sarovka and the other “proto-Thracian culture” examples Bird mentions date to before the Thracians or even the Greeks. They cannot tell us anything about haplogroup E. If anything, all these sites vindicate Oppenheimer’s theory of the demic spread of Middle Eastern (read Anatolian) agriculture, which Bird calls “flawed fundamentally” (27). The center for the diffusion of E in the Balkans is not in Bulgaria or Thrace but northwestern Greece, Albania and Kosovo. The Balkan Peninsula does not have to be the only place from which Bird can manage to derive E and get it to Britain in time to become part of the historical record. It is also strong throughout Greece, Cyprus, the Greek parts of southern Italy, North Africa and even parts of Spain. In fact, its presence in many of those locations is acknowledged to be “due to a founder effect, i.e. the migration of a small group of settlers carrying mostly this lineage (but also a small amount of other North-East African lineages, notably E-M123 and T.” (See http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_E1b1b_Y-DNA.shtml.)

            Despite these failings relating to statement of thesis and validity of arguments, Bird’s work is based on useful data. Three population surveys with frequencies for E in Britain were available to him, the data sets of Capelli, Weale and Sykes. Notwithstanding the nomenclature confusion, only the Sykes data set has true shortcomings, as the Oxford Genetic Atlas Project at the time contained only forty E haplotypes, too small for a valid sample. There are problems comparing them, as Bird realizes, but trends and general conclusions are certainly possible. Before attempting to analyze the haplogroup E variation in Britain, though, we must address the matter of time depth.

            We have no quarrel with geneticists’ and genetic genealogists’ methods of gauging coalescence times. Thus, Bird reiterates that the “time to most recent common ancestor” or TMRCA of Cruciani and others led to the “important finding . . . that E-V13 [read 85% of E] and J-M12 [read J] had essentially identical population coalescence times (27).” E and J are companion types that expanded from their Middle Eastern homelands together in the same fashion and probably reinforced each other in multiple phases of gene flow. But who is to say in any specific case of a haplotype that it arrived in Britain 4,000 years ago (TMRCA) or at any subsequent time, including the time when our grandfathers lived. The TMRCA sets a haplotype’s time of origin but not its place of origin, except by inference. We hypothesize that from a host of other factors, chiefly present-day clusters, genetic distance between types and high concentration of haplotype diversity.  Using TMRCA, Bird argues that a specific form of E “could not have arrived in Britain during the Neolithic era (6.5-5.5 kya) if it had not yet expanded from the southern Balkans (27).” We prefer to believe that it came to the British Isles at several critical times, first in Neolithic times but later with the Phoenicians, Jews, Egyptians, Iberians and related peoples.    

            Bird cherry-picks the data to support his Roman Balkan or what might be called Diocletian thesis, but data are data; these are amenable not only to bearing out the general storyline we present but also to supporting, within the same historical context, the existence of certain hot spots for Jewish and Middle Eastern DNA in England and Wales.  We agree somewhat with Bird the Welsh cluster for E is “underestimated by an arbitrary division by Sykes into two geographic regions (‘Wales’ and ‘Northern England’) . . . [creating] an impression of a large number of ‘Eshu’ haplotypes located throughout Northern England, when in fact the Northern English cluster is linked to Welsh cluster geographically (29).” Only, we would see in that Northern English cluster the remains of the historical Welsh Old North (chapters 1 and 7). We would not necessarily see in the Wales-to-Nottingham cluster the fading footprints of “the Ordovices, the Deceangi, the Cornovii, the Brigantes and the Coritani tribes (30),” about whom little is known in any event, but a belt of pre-existing Mediterranean culture reinforced by Roman occupation and somewhat resistant to Anglo-Saxon and Viking intrusions. Another shrinking pocket of the old British culture is shown in the elevated frequencies for both E and J in Strathclyde and Cumbria, part of the Welsh Old North.

            Bird has an informative map of Britain illustrating E1b1b distribution according to the Kringing method (34). In this we can trace all the major pockets of Mediterranean and Jewish DNA. Leaving aside Scotland, and aside from the Midlands pocket already mentioned, our eye is drawn to North Wales (along with a clear wall of high incidence surrounding it as though beating back the forces of history on all sides), Dorset, London and East Anglia. It cannot be coincidence that these are the very regions where we have diagnosed the presence of Jews and picked up their trail through the chapters of our book.

            As a final note, a 2005 paper by Robert Tarín provides phylogenetic analyses of E1b1b haplotypes that cast serious doubt on Bird’s assertions and confirm our reading of the evidence. Tarín used 290 individual Y chromosome results to characterize “a separate cluster of mostly Iberian haplotypes which seem to represent a North African entry into Iberia distinct from the E3b [E1b1b] in Europe that may have arisen from Neolithic or other migratory events.” He wrote that “it is unknown whether this finding reflects relatively recent gene flow from the Islamic rule of Spain or an older influx possibly from the Phoenicians”—the same quandary about time frame and coalescence we see above. Utilizing the Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), Tarín found levels of the Iberian E haplotype as high as 61% in one Tunisian population (Zriba, near ancient Carthage), while Andalusian Arabs and Tunisian Berbers both showed frequencies of about 7%. We believe this Iberian haplotype is a small, but important Jewish lineage that expanded from Tunisia to the Iberian Peninsula with the Berbers who aided Arab armies in conquering Spain. Interestingly, it accompanied Spanish Jews to Mexico and other places in the diaspora following the events of 1492.  Its distribution in Britain should reveal an implantation originally under the Phoenicians reinforced by periodic migrations of North African and Spanish or French Jews throughout the medieval and early modern periods of British history.

Steven C. Bird, “Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin,” Journal of Genetic Genealogy 3.2 (2007) 26-46.

Robert L. Tarín, “An Iberian Sub-Cluster Is Revealed in a Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Y-chromosome E3b [E1b1b] Haplogroup,” published online Nov. 2005 and retrieved Jan. 2012 at http://garyfelix.tripod.com/E3bsubcluster.pdf.

Map shows location of Devon, one possible hotspot for British male haplogroup E. 


Paul commented on 28-Apr-2012 08:14 PM

This is fascinating. I wonder if I can count myself among these descendents. Though Bird may have been debunked, my Mother's autosomal analyses (as well as my own) included a very prominent representation from the Balkans, especially Croatia, Bosnia and
Macedonia. Her mother was French-Canadian, and we have paper-trailed those unmistakably French surnames in Quebec back to the early 1700's. However, her father was a descendent of Henry Cook I of Devon. Iberian representation we saw in the analyses were not
unexpected given the known history of the British Isles, but the Balkan representation sure was.

Brian Colquhoun commented on 01-Mar-2013 06:20 PM

I just assumed the V13 moved from Northern Africa to the Middle East (ancient Israel included) and thence to the Balkans (including Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia)and Greece. Certainly, a Roman connection in transport to Britain seems intuitive, but as more and more data becomes available, I'm sure the story will sort itself out.

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Brent Kennedy Mark Thomas Albert Einstein College of Medicine Kari Carpenter Arizona Charlemagne Monya Baker Genex Diagnostics Sasquatch human migrations PNAS haplogroup J HapMap Stacy Schiff Anacostia Indians Elizabeth DeLand Rare Genes Middle Eastern DNA Cooper surname Tintagel Mucogee Creeks Horatio Cushman Sizemore Indians Nancy Gentry The Calalus Texts Richard III autosomal DNA forensics Daily News and Analysis Nova Scotia European DNA Bill Tiffee Olmec Tutankamun Melungeon Heritage Association cannibalism Great Goddess Denisovans Mary Settegast Tennessee Promega Richard Buckley David Cornish Hawaii oncology Muslims in American history Carl Zimmer haplogroup L Alia Garcia-Ureste haplogroup B Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Rebecca L. 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Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Zizmer Lab Corp Gravettian culture FDA haplogroup W John Ruskamp Virginia genealogy Egyptians consanguinity Navajo Micmac Indians Terry Gross Michael Grant Bode Technology Paleolithic Age James Stritzel Israel, Shlomo Sand Henry IV Sarmatians Tara MacIsaac Jalisco Gregory Mendel Monica Sanowar Gunnar Thompson Asian DNA Daniel Defoe Jack Goins Holocaust Database Austro-Hungary Waynesboro Pennsylvania religion Jews National Geographic Daily News DNA magazine Rich Crankshaw haplogroup M Richmond California Charlotte Harris Reese personal genomics palatal tori New York Academy of Sciences Ziesmer, Zizmor India art history Smithsonian Magazine Life Technologies Pueblo Indians population isolates Kennewick Man haplogroup C Belgium Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans clan symbols Donald N. Yates single nucleotide polymorphism private allele rock art Chris Stringer Texas A&M University Tucson crosses polydactylism Anasazi Illumina Celts Cleopatra Joseph Jacobs Columbia University Philippa Langley methylation Stephen Oppenheimer Hertfordshire Harold Sterling Gladwin Alec Jeffreys Panther's Lodge Publishers Maya Bradshaw Foundation Joel E. 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