If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!


review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Indians and Crypto-Jews

Sunday, October 06, 2013

It's been exactly 10 years since this paper was first presented to a conference of Jewish genealogists and DNA experts, so we are posting it in this space on its anniversary. "DNA Testing of Southeastern American Indian Families to Confirm Jewish Ethnicity," Paper Delivered by Donald Panther-Yates at the Society for Crypto Judaic Studies Conference, San Antonio, August 3, 2003

The project I will be speaking about today is the first of its kind I am aware of. It grew out of the Melungeon Surname DNA Project started by Beth Hirschman, who was inspired—or manic enough at the time—to spring for the funds. I want to begin by thanking both Beth and Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA for their amazing help and support. At one point in the project, when the results were beginning to roll in, I was pleased to see that both Bennett’s son Elliott and Abe Lavender matched mitochondrial DNA results of several of our participants. Beth was able to e-mail Bennett with the message, “Welcome to Melungeon-land!”

The project called for volunteers to take either a female descent or male descent genetic test if they could provide reasonable genealogical proof that they were descended either from an early Indian trader or a Native American woman who married or had children with one. The odds were all against us. In order to qualify, the descent of the trader or his wife could not cross from the male to the female line; it had to be either the outside male line, father to son, father to son, or the outside female line, mother-daughter, mother-daughter. We could not, for instance, test one individual who claimed, very eloquently and convincingly, to be descended from both Pocahontas and her sister-cousin Princess Cleopatra. I received a fair measure of hate mail from professors of Indigenous Studies. One volunteer, a Collins in Kentucky, wrote to me about Torah study in her local band of the Saponi, though she assured me they were all good Christians. I also got an interesting letter from the chief of a Tennessee band of the Cherokee who lamented the fact that the tribe members were going through their fourth round of DNA testing without proving much Indian blood. They had found so much Jewish types among them that one of them decided to adopt the name “Rolling Bagel.”

Some of the test subjects invariably got cold feet and bowed out. I am particularly sorry to have missed the linear descendant of James Adair (author of the first anthropological study of American Indians), the linear descendant of Abraham Mordecai (founder of the town of Montgomery, Alabama), and the linear descendant of Cherokee Chief John Looney (whose ancestors were the famous Luna family of Portugal, among them “the Woman Who Defied Kings”). On the positive side, though, we hit paydirt by locating people with the right credentials and level of cooperation for a number of important historical figures. These included Nancy Ward, the Beloved Woman of the Cherokee Nation, who has more than 12,000 known descendants alive today; Col. William Holland Thomas, the Welsh trader who founded the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina; Chief John Bowles, the leader of the Texas Band of Cherokees; and Elizabeth Tassell, said to be the first Cherokee to marry a white man, (Ludovic Grant, a Scottish trader). To these may be added an ancestor both Beth and I have in common—William Cooper, an explorer and trader who was the scout for Daniel Boone.

What I’m going to do is run through the numbers first, then talk about a few of the genetic types on both the female (mostly Indian) side and white (mostly male) side, then sum up with some observations about the early mixing of Indians and Jews in the Colonial period. You will see that admixture between Jews and Indians is a sort of Eastern parallel to the experiences you are probably more familiar with in the American Southwest. I’ve brought all my files with my on a laptop if anyone is interested in seeing specific data or is curious about pursuing a connection after the lecture.

First, the numbers. There were 9 persons, mostly females, who took the Native Match test, and 12 persons, necessarily males, who took the Y chromosome test. Only one test result came back Unknown. Many of the haplotypes were unique, meaning they matched no sample in either Bennett’s clientele at Family Tree DNA or the larger databases he cross-indexes to, including Michael Hammer’s. This shouldn’t surprise us because the DNA testing of Native Americans has been very limited, controversial, concentrated in any event on Navajos and other Western reservation tribes. Peter Jones of the Bäuu Institute in Boulder, Colorado, recently published an important paper criticizing the whole state of anthropological genetics and calling for an entirely new beginning. Of the five lineages the current state of scholarship classifies as Native American—haplogroups A, B, C, D and X—our project found 2 Cs and one B, no A, no D, and one X, the latter in an uncle of one of our participants. The majority of those hoping to authenticate their female Indian ancestry (5 out of 9) proved to be  H, the most common European haplogroup. One was J, the classic Jewish/Semitic haplogroup. As for the Y chromosome haplogroups, half (6 out of 12) were R1b (sometimes called the Atlantic Modal Haplogroup), 2 (17%) were E3b, one of two well-studied Jewish haplogroups, and one was J2, the second well-established type. There were also single entries in the categories of Viking (Locklear, a Lumbee Indian name), Native American (Sizemore), and as I mentioned, one sample that turned out to be a “big unknown.” 

So those are the results we are dealing with. Both Beth and I—I'm not sure about Bennett—were impressed with the fact that, though this was just a small sample, it produced the same proportion of what we might call male Jewish DNA, roughly 20 percent, vis à vis 80 percent male non-Jewish DNA, as is the proportion in most studies of both Sephardic and Ashkenazi populations. On the female side, the most startling result was a strong hint that there were females carrying Middle Eastern genes among the Cherokees even before so-called “white contact” in the eighteenth century. 

For our first break-out, let’s talk about the results for a woman whom I shall Jasmine, for she showed the J haplogroup in her female line. Jasmine was very forthcoming with documentation, names, dates and a lot of family history that would probably not have been shared and made available under other circumstances. She claimed strict matrilineal descent from Betsy Walker Hyde, a native girl born about 1718, who was captured in a military attack by the English and raised by Sen. Felix Walker. Her descendant, Catherine Hyde, was remembered as a “full blood Cherokee.” Catherine became the mistress of Col. Will Thomas and bore him several children. Jasmine put me in touch with the last, lone descendant of one of Col. Will’s other daughters, whom he fathered with another native woman, Demarius Angeline Thomas Sherril. The mtDNA there was haplogroup X, a rare Native American lineage which may have come from Europe or the Middle East, not Asia. There are many reasons to think Col. Thomas himself was a crypto-Jew. His mother was a Calvert, and the Holland surname is often associated with Jews from the Netherlands. Supporting the suspicion these people were crypto-Jewish culture are the names they gave their children: Demarius (Tamar), Darthelia, Joshua, Parmelia and (my favorite) Docie Beatrice.

 Let us go now to the man who turned out to bear Jewish male DNA. I was extremely pleased to get correspondence from the descendants of Col. John Bowles, the founder of the Texas Band of the Cherokee. Chief Bowles died leading a war party, shot in the back by a white man near Redlands, Texas, in 1839. We located two elderly brothers in Oklahoma who were great-great-great grandsons of the legendary chief. To everyone’s surprise Bowles DNA came back J2, with a two-step mutation matching a person identified as Ashkenazi from the Ukraine. How could this be? Bowles was similar to other Cherokee chiefs of his day in being a halfbreed. His father was a Scottish trader and his mother a full-blood Cherokee. When his father was killed and robbed by two North Carolinians in 1768, John was only twelve years old, but within two years the fair-complexioned, auburn haired boy had killed both his father’s slayers. After that, he became a Chickamauga warrior. He was called The Bowl (in Cherokee, Duwali). And he was not the only "white chief." Another during the same period was The Glass, whose name in the North Carolina settlements was originally Thomas Glass. Chief Black Fox, my ancestor was a Scotsman descended from Blacks and FoxesI believe all these families were Scottish crypto-Jews. They were heavily intermarried, generation after generation.

I ran a search for matches on Bowles DNA in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database. There were 17 matches in Europe—Albania, Berlin, Budapest, Bulgaria, Bydgoszcz in northern Poland, Cologne, Colombia (2), Freiburg, Latium, Pomerania, Stuttgart, Sweden, Tyrol, Umbria, Warsaw and Westphaia. A “one-off” mutation produced Freiburg and Lombardy. The picture that emerged was one that closely echoed the distribution pattern for the Gothic invasions that repeopled Italy, France and Spain. To the contrary, the predominant matches in our Melungeon surname study have led to the Iberian Peninsula and to places like Antioquia, Colombia, where Marranos and crypto-Jews emigrated. Here was a Jewish haplotype that, historically speaking, seemed to have traveled out of Scandinavia and the Baltic region, passed through Italy to Spain and Scotland and migrated on to the Americas, where it mingled with the Indians.

In another of our surnames, Rogers, one can also retrace the footsteps of the Goths.

How about Wales as an unlikely place to find Jews? Our project established the Jewish origins of another great pioneer family of the South who intermarried with Cherokees, the Blevinses.  Two of our Blevins test subjects were found to have E3b genes, which even Bennett admits are Ashkenazic. The name Blevins originates in Britain and by the seventeenth century was associated with the little port town of Formby. It may be derived from (a)b (Welsh for "son of") and Levin (meaning Levite). William Blevins, born in Rhode Island, was a Long Hunter who explored Kentucky and Tennessee with Elisha Wallen in 1734. His son had two Cherokee wives, sisters, and a multitude of Blevinses appear on the Cherokee rolls. All are my cousins, as my great-great-grandmother was Mahala Jane Blevins. The Blevins family has occasionally shown itself to be openly Jewish. Bertha Blevins, a declared Jewess, married Moses H. Cone, who was born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1857. She endowed the Greensboro (N.C.) Health Care System upon her death in 1947.

Now it is time to look at the American Indian results. We were fortunate in being able to sample the DNA of two key female figures in Cherokee history. Elizabeth Tassell (we might as well call her a “princess” as long as the American Indian Movement or sticklers in the BIA are not listening), married Ludovic Grant, a Scottish trader about 1720. His name probably comes from French Grand, German Gross. The couple's  descendants are the oldest of the bloodlines studied in a definitive fashion by Emmett Starr, whose genealogies were the basis for government blood quantums and tribal membership. One of Elizabeth Grant's eleventh-generation descendants, with a long Dutch name, joined our study and her DNA proved to be haplogroup C. This was also the haplogroup of an Oklahoma descendant of Nancy Ward, the famous Beloved Woman. Both participants preserve their clan affiliation, which is Wolf Clan.

Does this tell us anything? I think it does.  One’s clan was passed from the mother to her children in a strict matrilineal fashion, just like mitochondrial DNA.

Another test subject, a San Francisco man, matched a woman of Hispanic descent with a crypto-Jewish surname. He carried B lineage and the family still preserved the fact they were Long Hair Clan.

Haplogroup C, notably, has a large “cline” in the southern Appalachians. The B haplogroup, concentrated in the Southwest, appears to fit the Pueblo Indians.

Let me mention a “Big Unknown,” before concluding. This was an 80-year-old gentleman in California by the Scottish-sounding name of McAbee who generously joined our study, with the help of his niece. Their family had a sturdy tradition of crypto-Jewish practices in Kentucky, including opening the door for the prophet Elijah on special days. Everybody at Family Tree DNA drew a blank over his DNA, which was finally classified as “Unknown.” It was described by all the rest of us as “eerie.” The family claimed they were descended from Judas Macabbaeus. Could it be true? As I learned, it is indeed a very rare haplotype. The closest matches in the Y-user database in Berlin were in Albania, Bulgaria/Romani, London and with a Bulgarian Turk. If surviving descendants of the Hasmonean Jews, the first convert population, lived anywhere it would likely be in those places.

The last DNA test results I would like to talk about were those of a verifiable crypto-Jewish family among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians. This was a male paternal-line descendant of Louis LeFleur/LeFlore, a French Canadian trader who married Rebecca Cravat, said to be an “Indian princess.” He introduced the first cattle, hogs, keel boats, cotton and tobacco crops to the Choctaw. LeFlore thus occupies the same position of Culture Bearer as Nancy Ward holds among the Cherokee. His son Greenwood became the principal chief of the Choctaw, married a Jewish Cherokee woman named Elizabeth Coody and managed to stay in Mississippi after Indian removal. One branch of the family in modern times changed its name to Flores, which seems to be the original Portuguese form. Flores is a big Marrano surname. A run through the Y-STR database confirmed numerous Iberian and Latin American matches, with Asturias and Central East Spain being the strongest hits.

One of the really cool things about DNA analysis is finding a match and making contact with people you would never have dreamed you are related to. When we got the results for Gayle Wilson, an enrolled Cherokee in Oklahoma, and found out she carried the Nancy Ward gene, a young schoolteacher in California by the name of Juan Madrid wrote to us inquiring how he could have matched her. Madrid, of course, is a fairly common Marrano name. But he had no tradition of being Cherokee. His grandmother lived among the Comanches, and all the family would talk about is “some Indian blood somewhere,” without being specific. Juan definitely had the Cherokee Wolf Clan gene, and he is now pursuing tribal enrollment. I found out he already had an Indian name. Significantly, he is called Two Hearts.

It is time to draw some conclusions and end. Bennett has repeatedly assured both Beth and me that there is no such thing as “Jewish DNA.” Strictly speaking, it’s true. There are haplogroups into which the DNA of people known to be Jewish today fall. But even some Arabs and Muslims test positive for the Cohen gene. So how can we be so sure the Y chromosomal haplotypes we are studying are Jewish? The answer lies in a chain of circumstantial evidence. The overwhelming preponderance of surnames with Hebrew and Sephardic Jewish roots, combined with multigenerational cousin marriage and other historical factors, cannot be ignored. Genetics without a good genealogical chart is useless. Even the charts can sometimes be misleading unless one has access to death-bed confessions and whispered family traditions.

Only in the last two years did I find out my family was Jewish, or perhaps better said, crypto-Jewish. There is not a single surname in my family tree, which I have traced back more than 700 years in some lines, that defies the pattern. Despite all this, though, I always wanted to find something concrete and unequivocal, something of the vanished past I could touch with my hands and cling to in my thoughts. So this spring I made a pilgrimage to New Hope Cemetery on Sand Mountain in Tennessee where my great-great-great grandmother Mahala Jane Blevins Cooper is said to be buried.

New Hope is a beautiful, forgotten place. The dogwoods and redbuds were in flower; it was a Sunday morning. The Cooper-Blevins burial plot was on the edge of the cemetery with the oldest stones, rough unmarked header and footer rocks, unlike the rest of the graves. I took a picture of my great-uncle Harmon Cooper’s memorial. It had the Freemason or Templar cross and showed a hand pointing to the sky, with the words GONE HOME. I was thrilled, satisfied at last I had concrete proof, for I’d seen similar designs in the crypto-Jewish burials at Purrysburgh, South Carolina. I cleaned the graves … put down a tobacco offering in the Indian manner … said the Shema and Shecheyanu … and wished I had learned the Mourner’s Kaddish. I finally experienced what I think I had been looking for all along … a shock of recognition, a strong feeling that the ancestors were placated and pleased. If I have accomplished nothing else, I would like to leave you with this. We all have a moral imperative to uncover our families’ past. And they would have been proud of us.


Bill Hucks commented on 18-Jan-2014 01:37 PM

According to Wikipedia, Moses H. Cone married Bertha Lindau. How do you explain this discrepancy (that she was a Blevins)?

Janice E. Tachell commented on 23-Oct-2014 09:49 PM

I have a question My Great Great Grandma Simout (Steiner) was a full Blood Indian and so was my Grandma and My Mom is a Quarter Indian and also My Mom Kids I was Wondering how to find out how to Enrollment in a Tribe My Mom Names is Grace V. Pavey/Stringham date of Birth Dec. 26,1944 She passed away Dec.3/ 2007 My Grandma Day Date of Birth is April 28, 1918 She passed away in Nov. 20/2011. Janice E. Stringham / Tachell Date of Birth is June 12,1971

Isabel C commented on 17-Dec-2014 12:56 AM

Wow, this is a great article.
I just found my link to my Jewish/Cherokees, Blevins family, still trying to untangle it a bit, but my gosh, it all makes so much sense, for my 2x Great Grandma (whose portrait is on my wall) and her brick wall!
Now to find her "Cherokee" husband's kin as well, because I'm guessing they may fall in the same group...
VERY interesting!! THanks for all the info!

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image

Recent Posts


Les Miserables Jalisco Indo-Europeans Discovery Channel Elzina Grimwood Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Henriette Mertz Mark Thomas FOX News Tucson Penny Ferguson DNA Diagnostics Center Bulgaria Mother Qualla breast cancer Daniel Defoe Texas A&M University Lab Corp medicine Kentucky Horatio Cushman methylation ancient DNA Peter Martyr Patrick Pynes Cherokee Freedmen Walter Plecker Germany evolution MHC Acadians Tifaneg Kari Schroeder Britain research Sarmatians Salt River cannibalism mummies religion Maronites Epigraphic Society familial Mediterranean fever haplogroup H George van der Merwede When Scotland Was Jewish Joseph Jacobs health and medicine IntegenX Isabel Allende powwows Virginia genealogy Elizabeth DeLand climate change Amy Harmon Paleolithic Age Juanita Sims Melba Ketchum Italy Central Band of Cherokees rock art Rafael Falk Sinaloa pheromones Svante Paabo Secret History of the Cherokee Indians DNA security Terry Gross Harold Sterling Gladwin Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America human migrations Valparaiso University Jewish novelists African DNA Middle Ages ethnic markers X chromosome private allele DNA magazine Thruston Tablet Central Band of Cherokee University of Leicester Belgium Egyptians bar mitzvah Discover magazine Ron Janke Anne C. Stone Michael Grant ethics Thuya David Cornish Marija Gimbutas occipital bun Cooper surname Life Technologies James Stritzel Joseph Andrew Park Wilson prehistory Bureau of Indian Affairs haplogroup B Ashkenazi Jews bloviators Hohokam Indians Scotland haplogroup Z FBI King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Khoisan Gregory Mendel horizontal inheritance Phillipe Charlier Kate Wong HapMap North Carolina Scientific American The Calalus Texts Early Jews of England and Wales Grim Sleeper haplogroup E Melungeons peopling of the Americas Beringia Washington D.C. population genetics Monya Baker Riane Eisler Lebanon far from the tree American Journal of Human Genetics Y chromosomal haplogroups Silverbell Artifacts Mohawk Asiatic Fathers of America Douglas C. Wallace Zuni Indians Panther's Lodge Publishers Panther's Lodge Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Philippa Langley Eske Willerslev Etruscans New Mexico Khazars Gila River Freemont Indians Wikipedia genetic memory Puerto Rico clan symbols Holocaust archeology andrew solomon Y chromosome DNA Bryan Sykes Rush Limbaugh Bentley surname research Micmac Indians Romania Nayarit crypto-Jews Genome Sciences Building Myra Nichols history of science Solutreans Robinson Crusoe Wales Joel E. Harris Bradshaw Foundation Kari Carpenter rapid DNA testing Cohen Modal Haplotype epigenetics Irish DNA Chauvet cave paintings Middle Eastern DNA Virginia DeMarce Plato Nature Genetics Mildred Gentry England Family Tree DNA giants BATWING Russia immunology Zionism b'nei anousim Denisovans Melungeon Movement El Castillo cave paintings gedmatch Donald N. Yates Maui Erika Chek Hayden Tom Martin Scroft Melungeon Union Anasazi Bering Land Bridge Alec Jeffreys prehistoric art Cree Indians Monica Sanowar Cornwall Slovakia Altai Turks Harry Ostrer Colin Renfrew Bode Technology haplogroup W Stacy Schiff haplogroup T District of Columbia PNAS ISOGG Clovis Native American DNA Test DNA Fingerprint Test Finnish people Hawaii Barack Obama Native American DNA Maya Jon Entine Cismar genealogy Gunnar Thompson pipe carving Russell Belk Chuetas Jewish contribution to world literature Douglas Preston haplogroup C Havasupai Indians Old Souls in a New World Comanche Indians DNA Fingerprint Test El Paso The Nation magazine Dienekes Anthropology Blog Nova Scotia haplogroup M megapopulations Dragging Canoe Normans Jim Bentley Black Irish Richard Lewontin Chris Tyler-Smith William Byrd Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans CODIS markers myths Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Turkic DNA race metis Colima Phyllis Starnes Jesse Montes AP Richmond California Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Science magazine John Butler Current Anthropology NPR Constantine Rafinesque Moundbuilders EURO DNA Fingerprint Test John Wilwol Population genetics Nadia Abu El-Haj Mark Stoneking New York Academy of Sciences genetics Richard III Rare Genes Barnard College Cajuns Waynesboro Pennsylvania Olmec haplogroup N Tucson crosses Stony Creek Baptist Church Bigfoot Michael Schwartz London Israel, Shlomo Sand statistics family history Elizabeth C. Hirschman Pueblo Indians Stone Age population isolates New York Review of Books Cherokee DNA Magdalenian culture Sea Peoples genetic determinism Colin Pitchfork James Shoemaker Gravettian culture Charles Perou Phoenicians Carl Zimmer corn Sizemore Indians George Starr-Bresette personal genomics Old World Roots of the Cherokee Hispanic ancestry news Fritz Zimmerman Austro-Hungary Bill Tiffee Indian Territory Arizona State University anthropology Teresa Panther-Yates Johnny Depp Helladic art Europe Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Great Goddess DNA databases haplogroup G haplogroup U Sinti Nikola Tesla European DNA National Health Laboratories Pueblo Grande Museum Timothy Bestor Lithuania Hohokam B'nai Abraham National Museum of Natural History Odessa Shields Cox Keros Chris Stringer Taino Indians Stephen Oppenheimer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma China mental foramen Bryony Jones Albert Einstein College of Medicine Sonora GlobalFiler Wendell Paulson Promega Richard Buckley Rutgers University Greeks Hopi Indians consanguinity New York Times Applied Epistemology Satoshi Horai Algonquian Indians seafaring DNA Forums Brian Wilkes M. J. Harper Cherokee DNA Project Michoacan King Arthur Neolithic Revolution Gypsies Irish history Arabic ged.com Caucasian Arizona forensics human leukocyte testing Choctaw Indians origins of art Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Stan Steiner Sorbs human leukocyte antigens haplogroup X Nancy Gentry haplogroup L N. Brent Kennedy Sizemore surname education Alabama Daily News and Analysis Sir Joshua Reynolds Melanesians haplogroup J alleles Yates surname Navajo Indians Telltown Oxford Nanopore Hertfordshire Majorca Oxford Journal of Evolution Elvis Presley DNA Jews Patrick Henry Abraham Lincoln John Ruskamp Ireland Smithsonian Institution single nucleotide polymorphism Cleopatra Eric Wayner Mary Kugler North African DNA aliyah Tintagel Ostenaco ENFSI Israel Miguel Gonzalez Genie Milgrom David Reich Tennessee Jack Goins linguistics Victor Hugo Peter Parham Ethel Cox Basques Arabia cancer Melungeon Heritage Association Iran Richard Dewhurst Douglas Owsley Ari Plost Ancestry.com palatal tori Rich Crankshaw Shlomo Sand genomics labs microsatellites Abenaki Indians Kennewick Man haplogroup D Rebecca L. Cann Sam Kean Mary Settegast Cancer Genome Atlas hoaxes Leicester oncology Jan Ravenspirit Franz Navajo 23andme Pima Indians Columbia University ethnicity First Peoples art history clinical chemistry Phoenix Wendy Roth phenotype Roberta Estes Ukraine FDA hominids Antonio Torroni Tutankamun polydactylism Nature Communications Zizmer Akhenaten Janet Lewis Crain Anglo-Saxons Jewish GenWeb Mucogee Creeks Neanderthals Kurgan Culture Black Dutch Muslims in American history Marie Cheng Asian DNA American history mitochondrial DNA Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Hadassah Magazine Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Pomponia Graecina Mexico Sasquatch Charles Darwin BBCNews surnames Illumina Jewish genetics Holocaust Database Ripan Malhi Celts Genex Diagnostics Gustavo Ramirez Calderon French DNA Cismaru Charlotte Harris Reese Anacostia Indians Theodore Steinberg mutation rate admixture haplogroup R National Geographic Daily News Anne Marie Fine Ananya Mandal Ziesmer, Zizmor Asiatic Echoes Roma People Luca Pagani Henry VII Alia Garcia-Ureste university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill autosomal DNA French Canadians Stephen A. Leon Henry IV Louis XVI Smithsonian Magazine Irish Central Cave art DNA testing companies INORA Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute India Patagonia