If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!


review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Indians and Crypto-Jews

Sunday, October 06, 2013

It's been exactly 10 years since this paper was first presented to a conference of Jewish genealogists and DNA experts, so we are posting it in this space on its anniversary. "DNA Testing of Southeastern American Indian Families to Confirm Jewish Ethnicity," Paper Delivered by Donald Panther-Yates at the Society for Crypto Judaic Studies Conference, San Antonio, August 3, 2003

The project I will be speaking about today is the first of its kind I am aware of. It grew out of the Melungeon Surname DNA Project started by Beth Hirschman, who was inspired—or manic enough at the time—to spring for the funds. I want to begin by thanking both Beth and Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA for their amazing help and support. At one point in the project, when the results were beginning to roll in, I was pleased to see that both Bennett’s son Elliott and Abe Lavender matched mitochondrial DNA results of several of our participants. Beth was able to e-mail Bennett with the message, “Welcome to Melungeon-land!”

The project called for volunteers to take either a female descent or male descent genetic test if they could provide reasonable genealogical proof that they were descended either from an early Indian trader or a Native American woman who married or had children with one. The odds were all against us. In order to qualify, the descent of the trader or his wife could not cross from the male to the female line; it had to be either the outside male line, father to son, father to son, or the outside female line, mother-daughter, mother-daughter. We could not, for instance, test one individual who claimed, very eloquently and convincingly, to be descended from both Pocahontas and her sister-cousin Princess Cleopatra. I received a fair measure of hate mail from professors of Indigenous Studies. One volunteer, a Collins in Kentucky, wrote to me about Torah study in her local band of the Saponi, though she assured me they were all good Christians. I also got an interesting letter from the chief of a Tennessee band of the Cherokee who lamented the fact that the tribe members were going through their fourth round of DNA testing without proving much Indian blood. They had found so much Jewish types among them that one of them decided to adopt the name “Rolling Bagel.”

Some of the test subjects invariably got cold feet and bowed out. I am particularly sorry to have missed the linear descendant of James Adair (author of the first anthropological study of American Indians), the linear descendant of Abraham Mordecai (founder of the town of Montgomery, Alabama), and the linear descendant of Cherokee Chief John Looney (whose ancestors were the famous Luna family of Portugal, among them “the Woman Who Defied Kings”). On the positive side, though, we hit paydirt by locating people with the right credentials and level of cooperation for a number of important historical figures. These included Nancy Ward, the Beloved Woman of the Cherokee Nation, who has more than 12,000 known descendants alive today; Col. William Holland Thomas, the Welsh trader who founded the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina; Chief John Bowles, the leader of the Texas Band of Cherokees; and Elizabeth Tassell, said to be the first Cherokee to marry a white man, (Ludovic Grant, a Scottish trader). To these may be added an ancestor both Beth and I have in common—William Cooper, an explorer and trader who was the scout for Daniel Boone.

What I’m going to do is run through the numbers first, then talk about a few of the genetic types on both the female (mostly Indian) side and white (mostly male) side, then sum up with some observations about the early mixing of Indians and Jews in the Colonial period. You will see that admixture between Jews and Indians is a sort of Eastern parallel to the experiences you are probably more familiar with in the American Southwest. I’ve brought all my files with my on a laptop if anyone is interested in seeing specific data or is curious about pursuing a connection after the lecture.

First, the numbers. There were 9 persons, mostly females, who took the Native Match test, and 12 persons, necessarily males, who took the Y chromosome test. Only one test result came back Unknown. Many of the haplotypes were unique, meaning they matched no sample in either Bennett’s clientele at Family Tree DNA or the larger databases he cross-indexes to, including Michael Hammer’s. This shouldn’t surprise us because the DNA testing of Native Americans has been very limited, controversial, concentrated in any event on Navajos and other Western reservation tribes. Peter Jones of the Bäuu Institute in Boulder, Colorado, recently published an important paper criticizing the whole state of anthropological genetics and calling for an entirely new beginning. Of the five lineages the current state of scholarship classifies as Native American—haplogroups A, B, C, D and X—our project found 2 Cs and one B, no A, no D, and one X, the latter in an uncle of one of our participants. The majority of those hoping to authenticate their female Indian ancestry (5 out of 9) proved to be  H, the most common European haplogroup. One was J, the classic Jewish/Semitic haplogroup. As for the Y chromosome haplogroups, half (6 out of 12) were R1b (sometimes called the Atlantic Modal Haplogroup), 2 (17%) were E3b, one of two well-studied Jewish haplogroups, and one was J2, the second well-established type. There were also single entries in the categories of Viking (Locklear, a Lumbee Indian name), Native American (Sizemore), and as I mentioned, one sample that turned out to be a “big unknown.” 

So those are the results we are dealing with. Both Beth and I—I'm not sure about Bennett—were impressed with the fact that, though this was just a small sample, it produced the same proportion of what we might call male Jewish DNA, roughly 20 percent, vis à vis 80 percent male non-Jewish DNA, as is the proportion in most studies of both Sephardic and Ashkenazi populations. On the female side, the most startling result was a strong hint that there were females carrying Middle Eastern genes among the Cherokees even before so-called “white contact” in the eighteenth century. 

For our first break-out, let’s talk about the results for a woman whom I shall Jasmine, for she showed the J haplogroup in her female line. Jasmine was very forthcoming with documentation, names, dates and a lot of family history that would probably not have been shared and made available under other circumstances. She claimed strict matrilineal descent from Betsy Walker Hyde, a native girl born about 1718, who was captured in a military attack by the English and raised by Sen. Felix Walker. Her descendant, Catherine Hyde, was remembered as a “full blood Cherokee.” Catherine became the mistress of Col. Will Thomas and bore him several children. Jasmine put me in touch with the last, lone descendant of one of Col. Will’s other daughters, whom he fathered with another native woman, Demarius Angeline Thomas Sherril. The mtDNA there was haplogroup X, a rare Native American lineage which may have come from Europe or the Middle East, not Asia. There are many reasons to think Col. Thomas himself was a crypto-Jew. His mother was a Calvert, and the Holland surname is often associated with Jews from the Netherlands. Supporting the suspicion these people were crypto-Jewish culture are the names they gave their children: Demarius (Tamar), Darthelia, Joshua, Parmelia and (my favorite) Docie Beatrice.

 Let us go now to the man who turned out to bear Jewish male DNA. I was extremely pleased to get correspondence from the descendants of Col. John Bowles, the founder of the Texas Band of the Cherokee. Chief Bowles died leading a war party, shot in the back by a white man near Redlands, Texas, in 1839. We located two elderly brothers in Oklahoma who were great-great-great grandsons of the legendary chief. To everyone’s surprise Bowles DNA came back J2, with a two-step mutation matching a person identified as Ashkenazi from the Ukraine. How could this be? Bowles was similar to other Cherokee chiefs of his day in being a halfbreed. His father was a Scottish trader and his mother a full-blood Cherokee. When his father was killed and robbed by two North Carolinians in 1768, John was only twelve years old, but within two years the fair-complexioned, auburn haired boy had killed both his father’s slayers. After that, he became a Chickamauga warrior. He was called The Bowl (in Cherokee, Duwali). And he was not the only "white chief." Another during the same period was The Glass, whose name in the North Carolina settlements was originally Thomas Glass. Chief Black Fox, my ancestor was a Scotsman descended from Blacks and FoxesI believe all these families were Scottish crypto-Jews. They were heavily intermarried, generation after generation.

I ran a search for matches on Bowles DNA in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database. There were 17 matches in Europe—Albania, Berlin, Budapest, Bulgaria, Bydgoszcz in northern Poland, Cologne, Colombia (2), Freiburg, Latium, Pomerania, Stuttgart, Sweden, Tyrol, Umbria, Warsaw and Westphaia. A “one-off” mutation produced Freiburg and Lombardy. The picture that emerged was one that closely echoed the distribution pattern for the Gothic invasions that repeopled Italy, France and Spain. To the contrary, the predominant matches in our Melungeon surname study have led to the Iberian Peninsula and to places like Antioquia, Colombia, where Marranos and crypto-Jews emigrated. Here was a Jewish haplotype that, historically speaking, seemed to have traveled out of Scandinavia and the Baltic region, passed through Italy to Spain and Scotland and migrated on to the Americas, where it mingled with the Indians.

In another of our surnames, Rogers, one can also retrace the footsteps of the Goths.

How about Wales as an unlikely place to find Jews? Our project established the Jewish origins of another great pioneer family of the South who intermarried with Cherokees, the Blevinses.  Two of our Blevins test subjects were found to have E3b genes, which even Bennett admits are Ashkenazic. The name Blevins originates in Britain and by the seventeenth century was associated with the little port town of Formby. It may be derived from (a)b (Welsh for "son of") and Levin (meaning Levite). William Blevins, born in Rhode Island, was a Long Hunter who explored Kentucky and Tennessee with Elisha Wallen in 1734. His son had two Cherokee wives, sisters, and a multitude of Blevinses appear on the Cherokee rolls. All are my cousins, as my great-great-grandmother was Mahala Jane Blevins. The Blevins family has occasionally shown itself to be openly Jewish. Bertha Blevins, a declared Jewess, married Moses H. Cone, who was born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1857. She endowed the Greensboro (N.C.) Health Care System upon her death in 1947.

Now it is time to look at the American Indian results. We were fortunate in being able to sample the DNA of two key female figures in Cherokee history. Elizabeth Tassell (we might as well call her a “princess” as long as the American Indian Movement or sticklers in the BIA are not listening), married Ludovic Grant, a Scottish trader about 1720. His name probably comes from French Grand, German Gross. The couple's  descendants are the oldest of the bloodlines studied in a definitive fashion by Emmett Starr, whose genealogies were the basis for government blood quantums and tribal membership. One of Elizabeth Grant's eleventh-generation descendants, with a long Dutch name, joined our study and her DNA proved to be haplogroup C. This was also the haplogroup of an Oklahoma descendant of Nancy Ward, the famous Beloved Woman. Both participants preserve their clan affiliation, which is Wolf Clan.

Does this tell us anything? I think it does.  One’s clan was passed from the mother to her children in a strict matrilineal fashion, just like mitochondrial DNA.

Another test subject, a San Francisco man, matched a woman of Hispanic descent with a crypto-Jewish surname. He carried B lineage and the family still preserved the fact they were Long Hair Clan.

Haplogroup C, notably, has a large “cline” in the southern Appalachians. The B haplogroup, concentrated in the Southwest, appears to fit the Pueblo Indians.

Let me mention a “Big Unknown,” before concluding. This was an 80-year-old gentleman in California by the Scottish-sounding name of McAbee who generously joined our study, with the help of his niece. Their family had a sturdy tradition of crypto-Jewish practices in Kentucky, including opening the door for the prophet Elijah on special days. Everybody at Family Tree DNA drew a blank over his DNA, which was finally classified as “Unknown.” It was described by all the rest of us as “eerie.” The family claimed they were descended from Judas Macabbaeus. Could it be true? As I learned, it is indeed a very rare haplotype. The closest matches in the Y-user database in Berlin were in Albania, Bulgaria/Romani, London and with a Bulgarian Turk. If surviving descendants of the Hasmonean Jews, the first convert population, lived anywhere it would likely be in those places.

The last DNA test results I would like to talk about were those of a verifiable crypto-Jewish family among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians. This was a male paternal-line descendant of Louis LeFleur/LeFlore, a French Canadian trader who married Rebecca Cravat, said to be an “Indian princess.” He introduced the first cattle, hogs, keel boats, cotton and tobacco crops to the Choctaw. LeFlore thus occupies the same position of Culture Bearer as Nancy Ward holds among the Cherokee. His son Greenwood became the principal chief of the Choctaw, married a Jewish Cherokee woman named Elizabeth Coody and managed to stay in Mississippi after Indian removal. One branch of the family in modern times changed its name to Flores, which seems to be the original Portuguese form. Flores is a big Marrano surname. A run through the Y-STR database confirmed numerous Iberian and Latin American matches, with Asturias and Central East Spain being the strongest hits.

One of the really cool things about DNA analysis is finding a match and making contact with people you would never have dreamed you are related to. When we got the results for Gayle Wilson, an enrolled Cherokee in Oklahoma, and found out she carried the Nancy Ward gene, a young schoolteacher in California by the name of Juan Madrid wrote to us inquiring how he could have matched her. Madrid, of course, is a fairly common Marrano name. But he had no tradition of being Cherokee. His grandmother lived among the Comanches, and all the family would talk about is “some Indian blood somewhere,” without being specific. Juan definitely had the Cherokee Wolf Clan gene, and he is now pursuing tribal enrollment. I found out he already had an Indian name. Significantly, he is called Two Hearts.

It is time to draw some conclusions and end. Bennett has repeatedly assured both Beth and me that there is no such thing as “Jewish DNA.” Strictly speaking, it’s true. There are haplogroups into which the DNA of people known to be Jewish today fall. But even some Arabs and Muslims test positive for the Cohen gene. So how can we be so sure the Y chromosomal haplotypes we are studying are Jewish? The answer lies in a chain of circumstantial evidence. The overwhelming preponderance of surnames with Hebrew and Sephardic Jewish roots, combined with multigenerational cousin marriage and other historical factors, cannot be ignored. Genetics without a good genealogical chart is useless. Even the charts can sometimes be misleading unless one has access to death-bed confessions and whispered family traditions.

Only in the last two years did I find out my family was Jewish, or perhaps better said, crypto-Jewish. There is not a single surname in my family tree, which I have traced back more than 700 years in some lines, that defies the pattern. Despite all this, though, I always wanted to find something concrete and unequivocal, something of the vanished past I could touch with my hands and cling to in my thoughts. So this spring I made a pilgrimage to New Hope Cemetery on Sand Mountain in Tennessee where my great-great-great grandmother Mahala Jane Blevins Cooper is said to be buried.

New Hope is a beautiful, forgotten place. The dogwoods and redbuds were in flower; it was a Sunday morning. The Cooper-Blevins burial plot was on the edge of the cemetery with the oldest stones, rough unmarked header and footer rocks, unlike the rest of the graves. I took a picture of my great-uncle Harmon Cooper’s memorial. It had the Freemason or Templar cross and showed a hand pointing to the sky, with the words GONE HOME. I was thrilled, satisfied at last I had concrete proof, for I’d seen similar designs in the crypto-Jewish burials at Purrysburgh, South Carolina. I cleaned the graves … put down a tobacco offering in the Indian manner … said the Shema and Shecheyanu … and wished I had learned the Mourner’s Kaddish. I finally experienced what I think I had been looking for all along … a shock of recognition, a strong feeling that the ancestors were placated and pleased. If I have accomplished nothing else, I would like to leave you with this. We all have a moral imperative to uncover our families’ past. And they would have been proud of us.


Bill Hucks commented on 18-Jan-2014 01:37 PM

According to Wikipedia, Moses H. Cone married Bertha Lindau. How do you explain this discrepancy (that she was a Blevins)?

Janice E. Tachell commented on 23-Oct-2014 09:49 PM

I have a question My Great Great Grandma Simout (Steiner) was a full Blood Indian and so was my Grandma and My Mom is a Quarter Indian and also My Mom Kids I was Wondering how to find out how to Enrollment in a Tribe My Mom Names is Grace V. Pavey/Stringham date of Birth Dec. 26,1944 She passed away Dec.3/ 2007 My Grandma Day Date of Birth is April 28, 1918 She passed away in Nov. 20/2011. Janice E. Stringham / Tachell Date of Birth is June 12,1971

Isabel C commented on 17-Dec-2014 12:56 AM

Wow, this is a great article.
I just found my link to my Jewish/Cherokees, Blevins family, still trying to untangle it a bit, but my gosh, it all makes so much sense, for my 2x Great Grandma (whose portrait is on my wall) and her brick wall!
Now to find her "Cherokee" husband's kin as well, because I'm guessing they may fall in the same group...
VERY interesting!! THanks for all the info!

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image

Recent Posts


Sizemore Indians Khazars Barack Obama Peter Martyr Navajo Indians Native American DNA Test crypto-Jews Austro-Hungary Silverbell Artifacts Elizabeth DeLand Fritz Zimmerman Michael Grant Jewish contribution to world literature Science magazine Arabia Anglo-Saxons Penny Ferguson mutation rate megapopulations bar mitzvah Ron Janke Navajo Asian DNA Miguel Gonzalez far from the tree Mohawk Denisovans Population genetics Donald N. Yates Cohen Modal Haplotype Wendy Roth GlobalFiler Bentley surname research DNA security Maronites Pomponia Graecina Zionism surnames Kurgan Culture Roberta Estes B'nai Abraham Dienekes Anthropology Blog Solutreans Virginia genealogy Lebanon Nova Scotia Henry VII AP Tifaneg DNA Forums ENFSI haplogroup G horizontal inheritance Teresa Panther-Yates Ashkenazi Jews Gunnar Thompson Rich Crankshaw statistics Elizabeth C. Hirschman clan symbols Sonora American history Cave art Melungeon Movement Mother Qualla Hopi Indians Italy population genetics epigenetics Antonio Torroni seafaring Majorca prehistoric art Chauvet cave paintings Plato genetic memory Dragging Canoe Panther's Lodge hoaxes Douglas C. Wallace methylation Jon Entine Applied Epistemology Sasquatch Joel E. Harris Jewish novelists Grim Sleeper Khoisan Irish history National Health Laboratories Cancer Genome Atlas Ari Plost Ukraine New York Academy of Sciences Promega Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Gila River Chuetas James Shoemaker origins of art aliyah Michoacan Odessa Shields Cox El Paso John Butler Chris Tyler-Smith ethnicity Svante Paabo MHC Virginia DeMarce Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Cree Indians Mucogee Creeks Henry IV Telltown Charles Darwin Arabic Carl Zimmer Ostenaco Mildred Gentry Abraham Lincoln Washington D.C. Asiatic Echoes Cismar Hertfordshire Harry Ostrer Anne Marie Fine Richmond California Clovis Holocaust Database Celts haplogroup T Wales haplogroup R Henriette Mertz Maya ethics DNA magazine Leicester Basques Sinaloa Keros Oxford Nanopore Central Band of Cherokees Janet Lewis Crain admixture India Joseph Jacobs Michael Schwartz mummies Tintagel race peopling of the Americas corn Kentucky Phoenix David Cornish Johnny Depp haplogroup H Kari Schroeder Cherokee DNA Thuya Kari Carpenter X chromosome Marija Gimbutas When Scotland Was Jewish Neanderthals Life Technologies Phillipe Charlier Holocaust Israel, Shlomo Sand Nature Genetics Charles Perou Choctaw Indians London Gypsies Melungeons university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Marie Cheng Germany Jewish genetics Harold Sterling Gladwin giants Indian Territory Genex Diagnostics Sinti Stan Steiner breast cancer Hohokam Indians Walter Plecker Columbia University Bryan Sykes Mary Kugler Robinson Crusoe haplogroup U Lithuania French Canadians Bering Land Bridge Brian Wilkes North Carolina BBCNews occipital bun Myra Nichols Tom Martin Scroft Russia Genome Sciences Building pheromones Jews Texas A&M University ethnic markers Taino Indians Rafael Falk forensics 23andme cannibalism George van der Merwede Caucasian phenotype Elvis Presley DNA King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Jan Ravenspirit Franz Amy Harmon Stony Creek Baptist Church Tucson crosses The Nation magazine Daily News and Analysis Yates surname Great Goddess Genie Milgrom genetics Iran clinical chemistry Barnard College Anacostia Indians Ripan Malhi Early Jews of England and Wales Indo-Europeans Bureau of Indian Affairs andrew solomon powwows rock art DNA databases Jack Goins Finnish people Slovakia Victor Hugo Sorbs Cherokee DNA Project Jim Bentley haplogroup L personal genomics Jalisco American Journal of Human Genetics ancient DNA palatal tori Roma People Sarmatians William Byrd CODIS markers DNA Fingerprint Test hominids haplogroup N African DNA Colin Renfrew human leukocyte testing China Russell Belk Zizmer Douglas Owsley research Erika Chek Hayden Rebecca L. Cann Melungeon Heritage Association Philippa Langley Algonquian Indians Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Asiatic Fathers of America Albert Einstein College of Medicine Melanesians bloviators John Ruskamp Hispanic ancestry Helladic art haplogroup W Sizemore surname Kate Wong Akhenaten Tucson Shlomo Sand Louis XVI Black Irish Cooper surname Ethel Cox New Mexico haplogroup M Nadia Abu El-Haj HapMap George Starr-Bresette Stacy Schiff Hohokam Sir Joshua Reynolds cancer Current Anthropology Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies polydactylism Middle Ages Maui Phyllis Starnes Altai Turks Chris Stringer Old Souls in a New World evolution Arizona Cornwall news Valparaiso University Sam Kean Y chromosomal haplogroups Eske Willerslev Scotland human migrations haplogroup E Wendell Paulson National Museum of Natural History FOX News myths Richard Lewontin Bode Technology haplogroup C Juanita Sims Micmac Indians genealogy Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Secret History of the Cherokee Indians Isabel Allende Hawaii ged.com Colima genetic determinism anthropology oncology Phoenicians Douglas Preston Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Discovery Channel Zuni Indians Stephen A. Leon Cajuns Moundbuilders haplogroup J Sea Peoples New York Review of Books Gustavo Ramirez Calderon Mexico Melungeon Union Native American DNA Nature Communications DNA Diagnostics Center Alia Garcia-Ureste haplogroup X FBI Greeks Etruscans Mary Settegast Discover magazine Havasupai Indians Acadians Tennessee Israel Bryony Jones Riane Eisler District of Columbia Abenaki Indians Anne C. Stone Luca Pagani haplogroup D Europe Waynesboro Pennsylvania consanguinity immunology art history Puerto Rico National Geographic Daily News Jesse Montes Magdalenian culture Hadassah Magazine Smithsonian Magazine human leukocyte antigens Old World Roots of the Cherokee N. Brent Kennedy FDA Richard III Mark Thomas prehistory IntegenX Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Neolithic Revolution Pueblo Grande Museum Black Dutch religion Peter Parham Tutankamun Colin Pitchfork Family Tree DNA Ancestry.com Epigraphic Society Ziesmer, Zizmor James Stritzel Middle Eastern DNA Belgium Egyptians archeology Panther's Lodge Publishers Pueblo Indians Beringia Richard Dewhurst Richard Buckley Olmec Patagonia DNA testing companies rapid DNA testing haplogroup B Scientific American Irish Central Oxford Journal of Evolution Normans University of Leicester French DNA Melba Ketchum DNA Fingerprint Test Elzina Grimwood England Stone Age Cleopatra Ananya Mandal Mark Stoneking ISOGG King Arthur alleles Patrick Pynes Ireland Smithsonian Institution Anasazi haplogroup Z Irish DNA BATWING Terry Gross Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute health and medicine population isolates microsatellites Britain Thruston Tablet Jewish GenWeb linguistics pipe carving Arizona State University Muslims in American history El Castillo cave paintings New York Times Monya Baker European DNA Gregory Mendel Y chromosome DNA Wikipedia Freemont Indians Les Miserables First Peoples Nancy Gentry Central Band of Cherokee Daniel Defoe climate change The Calalus Texts Nikola Tesla Eric Wayner Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America single nucleotide polymorphism metis EURO DNA Fingerprint Test Horatio Cushman history of science b'nei anousim family history Cismaru autosomal DNA NPR Constantine Rafinesque John Wilwol Gravettian culture Paleolithic Age medicine Rush Limbaugh mental foramen Theodore Steinberg Rare Genes INORA familial Mediterranean fever Romania gedmatch Cherokee Freedmen Bigfoot Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Comanche Indians Turkic DNA North African DNA Bulgaria Bradshaw Foundation Salt River Monica Sanowar private allele education Alec Jeffreys Charlotte Harris Reese Nayarit Lab Corp M. J. Harper Timothy Bestor Stephen Oppenheimer Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma genomics labs Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Rutgers University Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Alabama Bill Tiffee Patrick Henry Pima Indians PNAS Satoshi Horai Kennewick Man mitochondrial DNA