If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!

888-806-2588

review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Surprises in English and Irish DNA

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Over a year ago, there appeared one of the few studies of autosomal DNA in Ireland and Britain. If you have English/Welsh, Irish, northern Irish, Highlands Scottish, Lowlands Scottish or Swedish matches, you will want to read this post. Here is the original article and abstract.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Nov;18(11):1248-54. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

Population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in Ireland and Britain.

Abstract

Located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland, Britain and Ireland were among the last regions of Europe to be colonized by modern humans after the last glacial maximum. Further, the geographical location of Britain, and in particular of Ireland, is such that the impact of historical migration has been minimal. Genetic diversity studies applying the Y chromosome and mitochondrial systems have indicated reduced diversity and an increased population structure across Britain and Ireland relative to the European mainland. Such characteristics would have implications for genetic mapping studies of complex disease. We set out to further our understanding of the genetic architecture of the region from the perspective of (i) population structure, (ii) linkage disequilibrium (LD), (iii) homozygosity and (iv) haplotype diversity (HD). Analysis was conducted on 3654 individuals from Ireland, Britain (with regional sampling in Scotland), Bulgaria, Portugal, Sweden and the Utah HapMap collection. Our results indicate a subtle but clear genetic structure across Britain and Ireland, although levels of structure were reduced in comparison with average cross-European structure. We observed slightly elevated levels of LD and homozygosity in the Irish population compared with neighbouring European populations. We also report on a cline of HD across Europe with greatest levels in southern populations and lowest levels in Ireland and Scotland. These results are consistent with our understanding of the population history of Europe and promote Ireland and Scotland as relatively homogenous resources for genetic mapping of rare variants.

Though the focus was on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage disequilibrium, or medical aspects of DNA, this study was groundbreaking in using supercomputing and has enormous implications for the history of the British Isles. It used data from over 3,000 individuals from seven populations:

1. Ireland/Dublin

2. Scotland/Aberdeen

3. Bulgaria

4. Portugal

5. Sweden

6. South/Southeast England

7. Utah

Data came from several sources:  the International Schizophrenia Consortium, Wellcome Trust Cast Control Consortium 1958 Birth Control Data set, Utah European ancestry population (CEU) and HapMap project.

The study aimed to describe, statistically, four measures of the Irish and English populations: 

1. Population structure

2. Linkage disequilibrium, with consequences for the study of common Irish and English genetic disorders

3. ROH, or runs of homozygosity, essentially a reflection of inbreeding and the remoteness of a population

4. Haplotype diversity (based on SNPs in atDNA)

The main conclusion was that Irish/English formed a separate and unique population since the Ice Age very different from either Bulgarian (SE Europe) or Portuguese (SW Europe), with great affinities to Sweden or Scandinavian populations (p. 1250). For instance, "the breakdown and patterning of LD [linkage disequilibrium] ... is virtually indistinguishable among the Irish, Scottish, southern English, Swedish..." (p. 1250).

"Diversity across Britain and Ireland is reduced in comparison with mainland European populations, with Scotland and Ireland having lower levels than southern England (p. 1251)."

The study postulates that Irish and English proneness to genetic disease came about as a result of population stasis or unchanging conditions. The agricultural revolution swept in a lot of additions to the gene pool in most of Europe, including Southeast England, but in areas like Ireland, Scotland and Sweden the same population stayed on the land with little increase, in fact with a negative effect during the Norse migrations of the 10th century and the Irish Potato Famine. The study mentions a "kinship effect" apparent in Irish and Scottish clan histories (p. 1254).

The surprising suggestion is that there will now be a groundswell of research into "Irish" and "Scottish" and "English" diseases comparable to Jewish diseases.

A related study is:

A. Auton, K. Bryc, A. Boyko, K. Lohmueller, J. Novembre, A. Reynolds, A. Indap, M. H. Wright, J. Degenhardt, R. Gutenkunst, K. S. King, M. R. Nelson and C. D. Bustamante, Global distribution of genomic diversity underscores rich complex history of continental human populations, Genome Research, February 2009. Abstract.

Comments

Stephanie Hayward commented on 27-May-2011 09:15 AM

I am reading the book "When Scotland was Jewish" and am also doing research on the mythical Milesians. Was wondering if this mythical Irish group had ever come up in your discussions. It is said they were descended from Jewish line and I started making
a connection by what is outlined in your book. By the way, the book is great! Stephanie

Teresa Panther-Yates commented on 08-Jun-2011 03:12 PM

How interesting! The Milesians are thought to be one of the mythical populations that started Ireland. They are thought to be Middle-Eastern and from Spain, but this population is not in the book and has not come up. Thank you for this adding this observation.
Teresa P. Yates

Brian Costello commented on 19-Jul-2012 11:39 PM

I can believe that Scots and English have some genetic relationship to the populations of Sweden and / or Norway. They look basically Germanic. However, the Irish are not a Germanic people at all and therefore must descend from a different gene pool, and
I don't think it is one from Spain either.

Peter O'Connor commented on 26-Jun-2013 12:41 PM

I support Bob Quinn's contention that the Irish and (West British) populations came via the sea - and from North Africa - via Spain.
The language, music, culture art and boat-design support this.


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.





Captcha Image


Recent Posts


Tags

Asiatic Fathers of America hominids Melanesians Hispanic ancestry Rush Limbaugh Irish DNA Plato horizontal inheritance Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America megapopulations Jewish contribution to world literature Phillipe Charlier MHC Phoenix Kate Wong Science magazine EURO DNA Fingerprint Test Sizemore surname Olmec B'nai Abraham familial Mediterranean fever Algonquian Indians Panther's Lodge Sir Joshua Reynolds Melungeons Leicester Mildred Gentry Oxford Journal of Evolution Kari Schroeder Gravettian culture National Health Laboratories human leukocyte testing BBCNews Jews medicine Mother Qualla Cherokee Freedmen Ostenaco prehistoric art Keros Terry Gross Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology forensics Neolithic Revolution Hohokam Michael Schwartz HapMap Isabel Allende David Cornish Alabama India history of science pheromones Zionism haplogroup D Bering Land Bridge Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies andrew solomon anthropology Colin Pitchfork Ukraine Sorbs Gypsies genealogy Virginia DeMarce ENFSI Holocaust Harold Sterling Gladwin genetic memory Monya Baker mental foramen Stony Creek Baptist Church Albert Einstein College of Medicine haplogroup L Neanderthals Bradshaw Foundation National Museum of Natural History NPR Scotland Ari Plost Marie Cheng FDA Les Miserables Cherokee DNA linguistics Phyllis Starnes Chauvet cave paintings Horatio Cushman Walter Plecker Russell Belk Promega Anne C. Stone Elizabeth C. Hirschman Discovery Channel Yates surname Israel Lab Corp Native American DNA Ananya Mandal Sarmatians Mary Settegast Normans Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis alleles Finnish people Population genetics Jan Ravenspirit Franz Sam Kean Sonora Bryan Sykes Juanita Sims genomics labs Luca Pagani DNA databases Scientific American epigenetics Holocaust Database family history Native American DNA Test Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama GlobalFiler Basques Khazars Solutreans Nayarit Genex Diagnostics Kentucky ethics peopling of the Americas North Carolina Daily News and Analysis Philippa Langley Stacy Schiff Harry Ostrer Mary Kugler Mexico Anacostia Indians Roberta Estes Charlotte Harris Reese Tintagel myths Henriette Mertz Asian DNA Richmond California X chromosome Clovis Bentley surname research The Nation magazine Elvis Presley DNA Satoshi Horai powwows Virginia genealogy Oxford Nanopore Epigraphic Society Middle Eastern DNA Melungeon Movement Jesse Montes DNA Fingerprint Test oncology Belgium Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Pueblo Indians haplogroup X Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Kurgan Culture Navajo Indians Cornwall art history Sinti M. J. Harper DNA testing companies microsatellites Indian Territory Smithsonian Magazine giants Ancestry.com Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Germany King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Colima haplogroup M Harold Goodwin Nature Communications genetic determinism Black Irish N. Brent Kennedy Tucson Central Band of Cherokee CODIS markers Arizona State University Donald N. Yates Kennewick Man haplogroup C Tifaneg aliyah Lebanon Rich Crankshaw George van der Merwede population genetics Jim Bentley Ron Janke ISOGG Puerto Rico Rutgers University Early Jews of England and Wales Ethel Cox Charles Perou polydactylism Brian Wilkes Michoacan Daniel Defoe Sizemore Indians Sinaloa Zuni Indians phenotype news palatal tori Moundbuilders Barack Obama London Etruscans Kari Carpenter Patrick Henry Peter Martyr Cleopatra Smithsonian Institution ancient DNA DNA Forums Timothy Bestor Khoisan health and medicine Wales Rafael Falk Denisovans Johnny Depp Egyptians Henry VII Salt River far from the tree James Shoemaker haplogroup B haplogroup U Black Dutch Odessa Shields Cox Janet Lewis Crain Bigfoot Alec Jeffreys Tom Martin Scroft Bode Technology New York Review of Books Anne Marie Fine university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill European DNA Italy INORA Peter Parham autosomal DNA Theodore Steinberg cannibalism First Peoples Mucogee Creeks admixture FBI Douglas C. Wallace Telltown Cherokee DNA Project Russia haplogroup H Ashkenazi Jews ethnicity private allele John Butler Comanche Indians Austro-Hungary immunology DNA Fingerprint Test mummies Applied Epistemology Havasupai Indians Choctaw Indians Abenaki Indians Discover magazine origins of art Beringia Current Anthropology Muslims in American history John Wilwol Richard Lewontin New York Times El Castillo cave paintings Jewish GenWeb Dragging Canoe Helladic art Central Band of Cherokees Majorca African DNA Washington D.C. Wendy Roth haplogroup Z Joel E. Harris Jalisco Grim Sleeper Cooper surname Cancer Genome Atlas Michael Grant New Mexico FOX News archeology Gila River BATWING clinical chemistry Louis XVI Erika Chek Hayden Douglas Preston District of Columbia Magdalenian culture Sasquatch Ireland Celts Jon Entine Irish Central Eske Willerslev Texas A&M University Waynesboro Pennsylvania Svante Paabo genetics Hertfordshire Nadia Abu El-Haj Stone Age Richard Dewhurst Paleolithic Age IntegenX Thuya Romania Slovakia Colin Renfrew Y chromosome DNA Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) human leukocyte antigens haplogroup R Indo-Europeans Rebecca L. Cann Navajo consanguinity personal genomics Genome Sciences Building Patagonia DNA security Chuetas prehistory Taino Indians Maya Panther's Lodge Publishers Robinson Crusoe Tutankamun Pomponia Graecina rock art single nucleotide polymorphism Columbia University Cismaru bloviators seafaring evolution French Canadians Middle Ages Miguel Gonzalez Nature Genetics Akhenaten Stan Steiner Melba Ketchum Turkic DNA climate change haplogroup N Sea Peoples China Acadians Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma Bryony Jones Teresa Panther-Yates rapid DNA testing Micmac Indians Wikipedia surnames DNA Diagnostics Center When Scotland Was Jewish Altai Turks Caucasian Arizona Old Souls in a New World Cohen Modal Haplotype Arabic crypto-Jews Marija Gimbutas occipital bun Rare Genes Hopi Indians Richard Buckley National Geographic Daily News Israel, Shlomo Sand Pueblo Grande Museum Stephen Oppenheimer Carl Zimmer bar mitzvah Jone Entine American Journal of Human Genetics Pima Indians University of Leicester Bureau of Indian Affairs Karenn Worstell breast cancer Riane Eisler Amy Harmon Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Secret History of the Cherokee Indians Wendell Paulson PNAS Great Goddess Jewish genetics Phoenicians Monica Sanowar Elizabeth DeLand Greeks Eric Wayner Chris Tyler-Smith clan symbols education hoaxes Freemont Indians Melungeon Heritage Association 23andme Cismar William Byrd Roma People haplogroup J Life Technologies mitochondrial DNA Antonio Torroni Bulgaria Family Tree DNA Cajuns Abraham Lincoln Elzina Grimwood Jewish novelists Zizmer Iran Valparaiso University Fritz Zimmerman Lithuania Shlomo Sand ethnic markers Britain Gregory Mendel French DNA Arabia Henry IV Penny Ferguson race Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Joseph Jacobs Anglo-Saxons Cave art Patrick Pynes Jack Goins Bill Tiffee haplogroup W DNA magazine Barnard College human migrations Hawaii Victor Hugo population isolates Mark Thomas Y chromosomal haplogroups King Arthur Hohokam Indians England Nova Scotia Douglas Owsley Chris Stringer Richard III cancer Ziesmer, Zizmor Constantine Rafinesque Charles Darwin Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman haplogroup E corn methylation Irish history Nancy Gentry North African DNA Maui Mark Stoneking Ripan Malhi New York Academy of Sciences religion American history statistics Melungeon Union AP Anasazi George Starr-Bresette mutation rate Tennessee Nikola Tesla Gunnar Thompson research Maronites Europe Dienekes Anthropology Blog haplogroup T

Archive