If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!

888-806-2588

Review of Science Writing and News Reports on DNA Testing and Popular Genetics

Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins

In memoriam Gloria Farley

Donald N. Yates

DNA Consultants

Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

SUMMARY  Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e.  Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.

A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew.  They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.

Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.  The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games.  The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.

To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins.  The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek
Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning
alomenoi
dakos
dasis
tynchana
etheloikeoi*
gennadas
huios Dios
illo, illas*
kakotechneo
kanon
karanos
kateis*
kerux
mona*
neika*
Ogyges
ouktenna
oulountata
skia
stix
tanawa*
(hoi en) telei
theatas*
theatron
Thrax
typho

wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
volunteer settlers
noble
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
a chief
assembly
herald
stopping place, way-station
contest
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed
declared healthy
ghost, shade
abominable
astronomical instrument
those in authority
spectator in a play
theater, assembly
 Thracian
raise a smoke, make sacrifice

eloh’; elohi
dakwa
dachi
tikano
eshelokee
kanat(i)
Su-too Jee
kilohi
kaktunta
kanuga
Koranu**
cahtiyis
skarirosken**
mona
anetcha
Ootschaye
Uktena
oolungtsata
atchina
Stichi
Tchlanua
tilihi
tetchata
tetchanun
tchaskiri**
Tathtowe,
  Tistoe
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish
hairy water monster
history
Cherokee; original people
doctor, hunter
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)
taboo regulation
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
assembly house
speaker, herald
land where the Elohi tarried
ballplay
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
ghost; cedar
name of dangerous serpent
Great Hawk
brave, warrior
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial enclosure
sorcerer, Stoneclad
ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)
 

Comments

Jim Sotirakos commented on 27-Feb-2012 04:53 PM

My parents were both from Greece. My DNA showed that I was 93% eastern european and 7% native American. The migration of our ancestors shows a continued migration from west to east until they came over the land bridge from Russia into north America.

Anonymous commented on 15-May-2012 09:28 PM

the basques are the hebrews..they spoke greek cos we founded ancient greece and all the nations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euUzRKuGwm8&feature=player_embedded

stan commented on 25-May-2012 12:02 AM

My grandma was full blood Cherokee and said "we mixed with the Greeks on the trail of tears..." I assumed she meant Creeks!

Sharee commented on 04-Jun-2013 08:41 AM

I know I'm Cherokee however I also know I'm Greek. I have a deep inner unexplainable love for Greece. My life's path has shown me who I am and expanded my spirituality. It continues to unfold.

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 12:38 PM

for the past 10 years my work with Indian artifacts face rocks as I coined the name has been censored by state government and archaeology,these pieces all not just from one area contain Mediterranean Greek Minoansee my pictures on Flickr my name is Lauren wEizel

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 01:20 PM

I havel.f. weizel found many artifacts hundreds of them for 10 years that have Mediterranean symbols and letters including Greek Minoan create an Egyptian not just on one area collected from Indian sites but in all areasand view my collection on Flickr my name is Lauren Weizel

Lauren Weizel commented on 24-Nov-2014 12:22 PM

In Raddisson and Lassales writings of early minnesota organizing fur trade its mentioned of the Christoes another name for the Cree (cretin) Gree then, they were described by the other notso natives as more humane simply bashing captives on the head instead of throwing them on the fire.
That turban seqouia has on reminds me of turkish ok, cherikish, my face rock collection from late 1990's are covered with many Mediterranian symbols as well as the owl, bear, and bull or buffalo. See flikr under lauren weizel out of the ancient indian toolbox into his art gal.


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.





Captcha Image


Recent Posts


Tags

familial Mediterranean fever Roberta Estes New York Times Family Tree DNA Bentley surname research CODIS markers Jewish contribution to world literature Panther's Lodge Publishers American history Smithsonian Magazine Jan Ravenspirit Franz bar mitzvah Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Secret History of the Cherokee Indians Alabama Cocoraque Butte Hohokam Jewish genetics Panther's Lodge Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Elvis Presley DNA Antonio Torroni DNA magazine Bradshaw Foundation DNA testing companies Sinaloa Bryan Sykes Cave art Stacy Schiff Discovery Channel Ananya Mandal research Maui Chris Tyler-Smith human migrations Robert C. Hyde genetic determinism Stephen Oppenheimer Carl Zimmer Wendy Roth Sir Joshua Reynolds Micmac Indians Current Anthropology population isolates Thruston Tablet HapMap Marija Gimbutas Hertfordshire Roma People clan symbols Robinson Crusoe Rich Crankshaw Barnard College DNA security BBCNews Irish history John Ruskamp Sizemore Indians Daniel Defoe far from the tree Charles Darwin gedmatch haplogroup X Lithuania haplogroup J crypto-Jews Choctaw Indians Dienekes Anthropology Blog Rebecca L. Cann George van der Merwede Michael Grant ethnic markers Science magazine Israel Joseph Jacobs Maronites Louis XVI oncology Magdalenian culture myths King Arthur Iran Stone Age El Castillo cave paintings Isabel Allende autosomal DNA Cooper surname Melungeon Union European DNA art history Signal Hill New York Academy of Sciences Hawaii First Peoples FDA District of Columbia Helladic art David Reich Stan Steiner Jim Bentley Cajuns University of Leicester Phillipe Charlier David Cornish Plato pheromones Asiatic Echoes Virginia DeMarce Chris Stringer prehistoric art Svante Paabo Albert Einstein College of Medicine origins of art Clovis genetic memory Mark Thomas linguistics Mexico Phyllis Starnes Nikola Tesla Michael Schwartz DNA Forums Hispanic ancestry hoaxes French Canadians Navajo Jews Genome Sciences Building haplogroup W Ripan Malhi Douglas C. Wallace ethnicity family history Moundbuilders cannibalism andrew solomon Hohokam Indians Leicester Brian Wilkes Havasupai Indians Solutreans Dragging Canoe Silverbell Artifacts Bryony Jones Michoacan Maya haplogroup N Mark Stoneking Tutankamun BATWING Tumamoc Hill haplogroup C Nayarit private allele Sinti Gunnar Thompson hominids National Geographic Daily News Amy Harmon powwows Etruscans Old World Roots of the Cherokee Zizmer Muslims in American history Beringia Khazars haplogroup E Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies medicine microsatellites Pima Indians news Walter Plecker Illumina Cleopatra Eske Willerslev Charlotte Harris Reese Riane Eisler Gila River Italy Gustavo Ramirez Calderon Nadia Abu El-Haj peopling of the Americas Phoenix The Nation magazine Colin Renfrew Pomponia Graecina Harry Ostrer Middle Eastern DNA human leukocyte testing Old Souls in a New World Majorca Caucasian Gregory Mendel corn James Stritzel John Butler William Byrd human leukocyte antigens The Calalus Texts New Mexico Holy Roman Empire Terry Gross African DNA Mary Kugler Colin Pitchfork Tom Martin Scroft Shlomo Sand Anacostia Indians Jack Goins Cree Indians haplogroup B Black Dutch Rush Limbaugh Barack Obama Y chromosomal haplogroups occipital bun genealogy Sonora Europe China megapopulations Yates surname Henry VII Navajo Indians prehistory Los Lunas Decalogue Stone George Starr-Bresette evolution cancer consanguinity immunology Texas A&M University Turkic DNA Sam Kean Arabia Richard Lewontin Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute When Scotland Was Jewish Horatio Cushman Algonquian Indians Kentucky Constantine Rafinesque Cohen Modal Haplotype Telltown Zionism Cornwall Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Monya Baker Anne Marie Fine England Epoch Times Asian DNA Jalisco Promega Stephen A. Leon Abraham Lincoln Comanche Indians French DNA mutation rate N. Brent Kennedy Sarmatians Genex Diagnostics Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Nature Genetics Tucson Melba Ketchum Germany haplogroup H race Pueblo Indians Jewish GenWeb Bulgaria Gravettian culture Cherokee Freedmen Odessa Shields Cox Black Irish FBI Applied Epistemology university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill haplogroup Z Sorbs Anglo-Saxons Ireland John Wilwol Myra Nichols Bigfoot Britain Kate Wong B'nai Abraham Finnish people Jewish novelists breast cancer Marie Cheng Mucogee Creeks Life Technologies Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology statistics single nucleotide polymorphism Kari Schroeder London Peter Martyr methylation Altai Turks Oxford Journal of Evolution Basques Smithsonian Institution Tucson crosses American Journal of Human Genetics Miguel Gonzalez Middle Ages haplogroup D Patrick Pynes Wendell Paulson Indo-Europeans Donald N. Yates Neolithic Revolution forensics Scotland genetics Early Jews of England and Wales Hebrew inscriptions Rutgers University Mildred Gentry Olmec Greeks New York Review of Books Austro-Hungary Hadassah Magazine Puerto Rico PNAS GlobalFiler Elizabeth DeLand INORA Wales Zuni Indians Acadians Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Charles Perou Cismar climate change Holocaust Kennewick Man epigenetics haplogroup M Richard III National Museum of Natural History Tara MacIsaac Peter Parham Belgium National Health Laboratories Theodore Steinberg Romania history of science Akhenaten Egyptians Mohawk Erika Chek Hayden Bill Tiffee Henriette Mertz Nature Communications Oxford Nanopore Sizemore surname Celts Abenaki Indians Chuetas haplogroup R King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Richard Dewhurst Ashkenazi Jews Ziesmer, Zizmor Khoisan FOX News Virginia genealogy Central Band of Cherokee Mary Settegast Satoshi Horai Irish DNA Tintagel palatal tori Population genetics Les Miserables mummies ethics M. J. Harper Epigraphic Society Daily News and Analysis Waynesboro Pennsylvania Bureau of Indian Affairs Stony Creek Baptist Church haplogroup U Rafael Falk Sea Peoples Jesse Montes horizontal inheritance X chromosome Ethel Cox Patagonia Wikipedia genomics labs Juanita Sims Mother Qualla personal genomics Jon Entine admixture Tifaneg Great Goddess Melungeon Heritage Association Arabic Cismaru El Paso Penny Ferguson Melungeon Movement DNA Fingerprint Test India Henry IV b'nei anousim Douglas Preston Elzina Grimwood Native American DNA Test Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Phoenicians Chauvet cave paintings phenotype Genie Milgrom health and medicine DNA Fingerprint Test haplogroup G education Melungeons Charlemagne Johnny Depp Alec Jeffreys Ari Plost Grim Sleeper metis DNA Diagnostics Center Hopi Indians Lebanon Nancy Gentry Central Band of Cherokees ged.com Sasquatch religion Teresa Panther-Yates rapid DNA testing Bode Technology aliyah Bering Land Bridge Israel, Shlomo Sand haplogroup L Joel E. Harris Irish Central Neanderthals Ukraine Cherokee DNA Project Y chromosome DNA Slovakia alleles Colima Ostenaco Denisovans Indian Territory Douglas Owsley Lab Corp pipe carving AP ENFSI IntegenX EURO DNA Fingerprint Test Russia Nova Scotia Valparaiso University Gypsies Pueblo Grande Museum Thuya mental foramen Russell Belk Eric Wayner Keros seafaring Freemont Indians Timothy Bestor Monica Sanowar Cherokee DNA Elizabeth C. Hirschman Asiatic Fathers of America Native American DNA Cancer Genome Atlas anthropology Normans Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma James Shoemaker rock art 23andme Richard Buckley Kari Carpenter Melanesians Kurgan Culture Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America clinical chemistry Anne C. Stone DNA databases Luca Pagani Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid ISOGG Holocaust Database bloviators Ancestry.com ancient DNA North Carolina population genetics polydactylism Columbia University Anasazi Salt River Richmond California Patrick Henry giants Discover magazine MHC Arizona Arizona State University Tennessee Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) archeology Alia Garcia-Ureste Philippa Langley Rare Genes Ron Janke Harold Sterling Gladwin mitochondrial DNA North African DNA Victor Hugo Fritz Zimmerman Janet Lewis Crain Taino Indians haplogroup T Scientific American Washington D.C. Paleolithic Age surnames NPR

Archive