If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!

888-806-2588

Review of Science Writing and News Reports on DNA Testing and Popular Genetics

Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins

In memoriam Gloria Farley

Donald N. Yates

DNA Consultants

Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

SUMMARY  Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e.  Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.

A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew.  They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.

Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.  The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games.  The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.

To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins.  The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek
Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning
alomenoi
dakos
dasis
tynchana
etheloikeoi*
gennadas
huios Dios
illo, illas*
kakotechneo
kanon
karanos
kateis*
kerux
mona*
neika*
Ogyges
ouktenna
oulountata
skia
stix
tanawa*
(hoi en) telei
theatas*
theatron
Thrax
typho

wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
volunteer settlers
noble
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
a chief
assembly
herald
stopping place, way-station
contest
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed
declared healthy
ghost, shade
abominable
astronomical instrument
those in authority
spectator in a play
theater, assembly
 Thracian
raise a smoke, make sacrifice

eloh’; elohi
dakwa
dachi
tikano
eshelokee
kanat(i)
Su-too Jee
kilohi
kaktunta
kanuga
Koranu**
cahtiyis
skarirosken**
mona
anetcha
Ootschaye
Uktena
oolungtsata
atchina
Stichi
Tchlanua
tilihi
tetchata
tetchanun
tchaskiri**
Tathtowe,
  Tistoe
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish
hairy water monster
history
Cherokee; original people
doctor, hunter
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)
taboo regulation
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
assembly house
speaker, herald
land where the Elohi tarried
ballplay
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
ghost; cedar
name of dangerous serpent
Great Hawk
brave, warrior
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial enclosure
sorcerer, Stoneclad
ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)
 

Comments

Jim Sotirakos commented on 27-Feb-2012 04:53 PM

My parents were both from Greece. My DNA showed that I was 93% eastern european and 7% native American. The migration of our ancestors shows a continued migration from west to east until they came over the land bridge from Russia into north America.

Anonymous commented on 15-May-2012 09:28 PM

the basques are the hebrews..they spoke greek cos we founded ancient greece and all the nations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euUzRKuGwm8&feature=player_embedded

stan commented on 25-May-2012 12:02 AM

My grandma was full blood Cherokee and said "we mixed with the Greeks on the trail of tears..." I assumed she meant Creeks!

Sharee commented on 04-Jun-2013 08:41 AM

I know I'm Cherokee however I also know I'm Greek. I have a deep inner unexplainable love for Greece. My life's path has shown me who I am and expanded my spirituality. It continues to unfold.

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 12:38 PM

for the past 10 years my work with Indian artifacts face rocks as I coined the name has been censored by state government and archaeology,these pieces all not just from one area contain Mediterranean Greek Minoansee my pictures on Flickr my name is Lauren wEizel

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 01:20 PM

I havel.f. weizel found many artifacts hundreds of them for 10 years that have Mediterranean symbols and letters including Greek Minoan create an Egyptian not just on one area collected from Indian sites but in all areasand view my collection on Flickr my name is Lauren Weizel

Lauren Weizel commented on 24-Nov-2014 12:22 PM

In Raddisson and Lassales writings of early minnesota organizing fur trade its mentioned of the Christoes another name for the Cree (cretin) Gree then, they were described by the other notso natives as more humane simply bashing captives on the head instead of throwing them on the fire.
That turban seqouia has on reminds me of turkish ok, cherikish, my face rock collection from late 1990's are covered with many Mediterranian symbols as well as the owl, bear, and bull or buffalo. See flikr under lauren weizel out of the ancient indian toolbox into his art gal.


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.





Captcha Image


Recent Posts


Tags

Alec Jeffreys Timothy Bestor Mucogee Creeks Genome Sciences Building Italy Virginia genealogy Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Puerto Rico clan symbols Anne Marie Fine haplogroup W cancer Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Hohokam Indians Alia Garcia-Ureste Rich Crankshaw population genetics Kurgan Culture Cherokee Freedmen Central Band of Cherokee Erika Chek Hayden El Castillo cave paintings Applied Epistemology Riane Eisler Monya Baker Taino Indians Salt River human migrations Greeks Theodore Steinberg Nadia Abu El-Haj seafaring Texas A&M University Micmac Indians Patagonia far from the tree DNA databases Daniel Defoe ethnic markers haplogroup Z Bering Land Bridge Tutankamun Holocaust Mark Thomas Melanesians American history Anglo-Saxons Cajuns admixture Cave art Melba Ketchum Alabama Britain Myra Nichols Sorbs David Reich DNA testing companies Sonora Nature Genetics haplogroup L CODIS markers haplogroup B single nucleotide polymorphism Asiatic Echoes Nayarit Lab Corp Gunnar Thompson Mary Kugler forensics Pueblo Indians phenotype Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Ukraine surnames ISOGG Russell Belk EURO DNA Fingerprint Test NPR Bode Technology Rafael Falk Arabia Amy Harmon pheromones Sam Kean Genie Milgrom Kate Wong Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Colima Thruston Tablet Arizona Elvis Presley DNA Moundbuilders Miguel Gonzalez crypto-Jews Anasazi Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Epigraphic Society INORA Leicester IntegenX Chuetas Odessa Shields Cox Michael Grant DNA magazine Grim Sleeper Phyllis Starnes Roberta Estes microsatellites university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pima Indians Marija Gimbutas origins of art BBCNews Phillipe Charlier El Paso Ari Plost Robinson Crusoe Bradshaw Foundation Life Technologies French DNA consanguinity Cismaru Nikola Tesla Virginia DeMarce news Sea Peoples epigenetics Ostenaco Horatio Cushman Maui Les Miserables Joseph Jacobs Abenaki Indians North Carolina ENFSI Yates surname Mother Qualla Colin Pitchfork genomics labs French Canadians Elzina Grimwood India Smithsonian Magazine Turkic DNA King Arthur Jesse Montes Jon Entine Caucasian Cornwall research Freemont Indians ged.com Y chromosomal haplogroups oncology New York Academy of Sciences Barack Obama occipital bun Bill Tiffee The Nation magazine Algonquian Indians Dragging Canoe Mark Stoneking familial Mediterranean fever Joel E. Harris Egyptians FDA Tintagel Basques Mary Settegast Jewish contribution to world literature Plato Hohokam Phoenix Charlotte Harris Reese AP Bryan Sykes DNA security cannibalism Scotland The Calalus Texts Irish history Ancestry.com Genex Diagnostics China Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama genetic memory Zizmer Hopi Indians Helladic art Secret History of the Cherokee Indians haplogroup C Comanche Indians Nancy Gentry breast cancer Cismar Walter Plecker Sarmatians Muslims in American history Richard Buckley Melungeon Heritage Association King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Altai Turks Gustavo Ramirez Calderon powwows Black Dutch hoaxes Cherokee DNA Project Tifaneg Beringia Cancer Genome Atlas private allele Rutgers University Magdalenian culture African DNA HapMap Charles Darwin Rush Limbaugh B'nai Abraham Bureau of Indian Affairs Richard Lewontin Khazars human leukocyte testing Normans England Smithsonian Institution Stephen Oppenheimer Havasupai Indians Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America haplogroup T John Butler Paleolithic Age Neolithic Revolution Jim Bentley FBI ethnicity aliyah Discover magazine John Ruskamp Douglas Owsley Keros National Geographic Daily News linguistics Victor Hugo Terry Gross haplogroup N North African DNA Sizemore surname Old World Roots of the Cherokee palatal tori Donald N. Yates archeology Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma Michoacan haplogroup G rock art Wikipedia Ron Janke Chris Stringer Jewish novelists DNA Fingerprint Test Shlomo Sand myths religion Roma People X chromosome London personal genomics Panther's Lodge Wendell Paulson Jalisco Charles Perou Celts Belgium genetic determinism Irish DNA Marie Cheng Jewish GenWeb haplogroup E Sir Joshua Reynolds DNA Forums Ashkenazi Jews prehistoric art metis Phoenicians Anacostia Indians Asian DNA Tennessee Michael Schwartz Rebecca L. Cann Valparaiso University Mohawk Richmond California Henry IV Peter Parham ancient DNA statistics Y chromosome DNA Ethel Cox Luca Pagani Bigfoot polydactylism Old Souls in a New World N. Brent Kennedy Chauvet cave paintings genealogy Nature Communications Indo-Europeans mutation rate haplogroup M John Wilwol Antonio Torroni megapopulations evolution mitochondrial DNA District of Columbia Douglas Preston Olmec climate change Wendy Roth Iran Juanita Sims Patrick Henry Philippa Langley Janet Lewis Crain Hispanic ancestry Science magazine corn Discovery Channel family history New York Review of Books Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Sinti prehistory Gregory Mendel haplogroup R population isolates Albert Einstein College of Medicine Eske Willerslev Family Tree DNA Dienekes Anthropology Blog Bulgaria peopling of the Americas Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Elizabeth C. Hirschman Native American DNA Test Illumina Etruscans Promega Austro-Hungary Jews Kentucky George van der Merwede Elizabeth DeLand Cohen Modal Haplotype Ananya Mandal Eric Wayner Native American DNA First Peoples Jewish genetics Acadians Jack Goins haplogroup J history of science immunology mental foramen Population genetics James Shoemaker horizontal inheritance Richard Dewhurst Melungeon Union Israel, Shlomo Sand Tom Martin Scroft William Byrd DNA Diagnostics Center Isabel Allende Sasquatch Zuni Indians Henriette Mertz Patrick Pynes New York Times Slovakia Thuya Navajo Akhenaten Columbia University PNAS Khoisan Cooper surname haplogroup H haplogroup D Abraham Lincoln Stan Steiner Europe Silverbell Artifacts Tucson crosses Rare Genes Teresa Panther-Yates rapid DNA testing Oxford Nanopore Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Kennewick Man BATWING Fritz Zimmerman Daily News and Analysis Arabic Peter Martyr Irish Central Chris Tyler-Smith b'nei anousim Solutreans Clovis Hadassah Magazine bloviators Holocaust Database Svante Paabo Gravettian culture mummies health and medicine M. J. Harper Germany Hawaii Nova Scotia Stone Age Gila River Stony Creek Baptist Church Cleopatra National Health Laboratories Harold Sterling Gladwin National Museum of Natural History hominids Ripan Malhi Harry Ostrer Stephen A. Leon Choctaw Indians Anne C. Stone Maya Richard III Hertfordshire Middle Ages Gypsies When Scotland Was Jewish Kari Schroeder Jan Ravenspirit Franz Louis XVI Israel Tucson giants pipe carving Penny Ferguson David Cornish Arizona State University Washington D.C. Telltown methylation Brian Wilkes bar mitzvah DNA Fingerprint Test ethics Cherokee DNA haplogroup U Zionism race medicine Romania Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America Mildred Gentry Pomponia Graecina Lebanon Maronites Sizemore Indians New Mexico Ziesmer, Zizmor human leukocyte antigens American Journal of Human Genetics FOX News Mexico Black Irish Middle Eastern DNA gedmatch autosomal DNA Waynesboro Pennsylvania GlobalFiler Johnny Depp Navajo Indians anthropology Ireland Oxford Journal of Evolution haplogroup X Asiatic Fathers of America andrew solomon Cree Indians Stacy Schiff Melungeon Movement Majorca genetics Pueblo Grande Museum University of Leicester Henry VII Douglas C. Wallace Carl Zimmer Melungeons Panther's Lodge Publishers MHC Neanderthals Bryony Jones Current Anthropology Lithuania 23andme Central Band of Cherokees George Starr-Bresette Bentley surname research Constantine Rafinesque James Stritzel Scientific American education Indian Territory Great Goddess Early Jews of England and Wales European DNA Colin Renfrew clinical chemistry Wales Russia Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Monica Sanowar Finnish people Sinaloa Denisovans Kari Carpenter Barnard College alleles art history Satoshi Horai

Archive