If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!

888-806-2588

review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins

In memoriam Gloria Farley

Donald N. Yates

DNA Consultants

Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

SUMMARY  Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e.  Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.

A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew.  They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.

Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.  The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games.  The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.

To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins.  The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek
Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning
alomenoi
dakos
dasis
tynchana
etheloikeoi*
gennadas
huios Dios
illo, illas*
kakotechneo
kanon
karanos
kateis*
kerux
mona*
neika*
Ogyges
ouktenna
oulountata
skia
stix
tanawa*
(hoi en) telei
theatas*
theatron
Thrax
typho

wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
volunteer settlers
noble
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
a chief
assembly
herald
stopping place, way-station
contest
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed
declared healthy
ghost, shade
abominable
astronomical instrument
those in authority
spectator in a play
theater, assembly
 Thracian
raise a smoke, make sacrifice

eloh’; elohi
dakwa
dachi
tikano
eshelokee
kanat(i)
Su-too Jee
kilohi
kaktunta
kanuga
Koranu**
cahtiyis
skarirosken**
mona
anetcha
Ootschaye
Uktena
oolungtsata
atchina
Stichi
Tchlanua
tilihi
tetchata
tetchanun
tchaskiri**
Tathtowe,
  Tistoe
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish
hairy water monster
history
Cherokee; original people
doctor, hunter
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)
taboo regulation
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
assembly house
speaker, herald
land where the Elohi tarried
ballplay
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
ghost; cedar
name of dangerous serpent
Great Hawk
brave, warrior
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial enclosure
sorcerer, Stoneclad
ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)
 

Comments

Jim Sotirakos commented on 27-Feb-2012 04:53 PM

My parents were both from Greece. My DNA showed that I was 93% eastern european and 7% native American. The migration of our ancestors shows a continued migration from west to east until they came over the land bridge from Russia into north America.

Anonymous commented on 15-May-2012 09:28 PM

the basques are the hebrews..they spoke greek cos we founded ancient greece and all the nations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euUzRKuGwm8&feature=player_embedded

stan commented on 25-May-2012 12:02 AM

My grandma was full blood Cherokee and said "we mixed with the Greeks on the trail of tears..." I assumed she meant Creeks!

Sharee commented on 04-Jun-2013 08:41 AM

I know I'm Cherokee however I also know I'm Greek. I have a deep inner unexplainable love for Greece. My life's path has shown me who I am and expanded my spirituality. It continues to unfold.


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.





Captcha Image


Recent Posts


Tags

hoaxes John Wilwol Phoenicians breast cancer Telltown haplogroup R Harold Sterling Gladwin DNA Fingerprint Test Kentucky Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Nikola Tesla Iran Nature Genetics Pueblo Indians IntegenX Bode Technology horizontal inheritance Discovery Channel Bryan Sykes Arizona Gila River Anne Marie Fine Cismar mental foramen GlobalFiler cancer Holocaust Asiatic Fathers of America El Castillo cave paintings Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America John Butler Sorbs Belgium Joseph Jacobs Cornwall Melungeon Movement Ashkenazi Jews pheromones Erika Chek Hayden Colin Renfrew M. J. Harper Daily News and Analysis Cleopatra Native American DNA Test genetics Cooper surname Michoacan Colin Pitchfork university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Louis XVI Eric Wayner Sarmatians Jewish novelists Tennessee genetic memory New Mexico human leukocyte testing Terry Gross Ripan Malhi Europe Current Anthropology Richard Buckley Salt River microsatellites Cajuns Maronites Normans Zuni Indians Zionism family history Kate Wong admixture Robinson Crusoe haplogroup U research Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Marija Gimbutas Teresa Panther-Yates King Arthur England Arizona State University Barnard College evolution human leukocyte antigens human migrations health and medicine Y chromosomal haplogroups Leicester Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Wendell Paulson genealogy Jim Bentley race Chris Stringer statistics Sizemore Indians African DNA George Starr-Bresette London Isabel Allende forensics Cohen Modal Haplotype Stony Creek Baptist Church Denisovans Douglas Owsley art history ENFSI Carl Zimmer polydactylism Hohokam Indians single nucleotide polymorphism Luca Pagani personal genomics National Museum of Natural History Cave art HapMap Abenaki Indians Egyptians Douglas Preston New York Times Algonquian Indians Sinaloa Monica Sanowar North African DNA Y chromosome DNA Science magazine Janet Lewis Crain Albert Einstein College of Medicine Arabia Melungeon Heritage Association Austro-Hungary BBCNews Akhenaten haplogroup X Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Ireland Genome Sciences Building haplogroup T linguistics Khoisan prehistory American Journal of Human Genetics Tintagel myths Patagonia Chauvet cave paintings Fritz Zimmerman haplogroup N Magdalenian culture Virginia DeMarce Ari Plost Ukraine BATWING oncology Charles Darwin Mark Thomas B'nai Abraham private allele Daniel Defoe Yates surname Black Dutch Monya Baker Kari Schroeder Comanche Indians Middle Eastern DNA Tutankamun Israel, Shlomo Sand Melba Ketchum Roberta Estes University of Leicester Indo-Europeans Henry IV Holocaust Database rapid DNA testing Elizabeth C. Hirschman Les Miserables Jon Entine Bryony Jones Rush Limbaugh Bulgaria ethics Nova Scotia Acadians familial Mediterranean fever rock art India Panther's Lodge Publishers Jews First Peoples Celts Havasupai Indians George van der Merwede Native American DNA Anglo-Saxons consanguinity Stone Age Stan Steiner FOX News ISOGG haplogroup E Romania clan symbols Philippa Langley New York Review of Books Waynesboro Pennsylvania Freemont Indians Solutreans Sonora King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales FBI Early Jews of England and Wales Horatio Cushman French Canadians Victor Hugo surnames Helladic art giants European DNA Richard Dewhurst FDA Greeks Paleolithic Age Richard Lewontin immunology Marie Cheng ancient DNA Donald N. Yates Anacostia Indians Elzina Grimwood Gregory Mendel Riane Eisler Hertfordshire China AP Clovis Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Charles Perou powwows Cismaru When Scotland Was Jewish Grim Sleeper bloviators Tom Martin Scroft DNA Forums ethnicity Turkic DNA Altai Turks American history Ziesmer, Zizmor New York Academy of Sciences Oxford Nanopore mummies Navajo haplogroup H National Health Laboratories Jone Entine Chuetas haplogroup Z Neanderthals occipital bun Gravettian culture EURO DNA Fingerprint Test French DNA Germany Hopi Indians prehistoric art Nature Communications Gunnar Thompson population isolates Rich Crankshaw Bradshaw Foundation Epigraphic Society Russell Belk medicine Wikipedia Henriette Mertz Keros Britain Bentley surname research Wales PNAS Irish DNA Moundbuilders David Cornish Oxford Journal of Evolution Discover magazine far from the tree Mary Kugler history of science Melungeon Union genomics labs Neolithic Revolution Sinti Irish Central bar mitzvah X chromosome Valparaiso University palatal tori aliyah clinical chemistry Abraham Lincoln Arabic Cherokee DNA Texas A&M University Charlotte Harris Reese Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Majorca archeology Tifaneg Basques Peter Parham Nayarit Pima Indians District of Columbia Mary Settegast Shlomo Sand Ron Janke origins of art Italy Phillipe Charlier Jewish contribution to world literature Peter Martyr Virginia genealogy Amy Harmon James Shoemaker Maya Timothy Bestor phenotype Miguel Gonzalez Pueblo Grande Museum William Byrd Lab Corp Stephen Oppenheimer Sasquatch Anasazi Cancer Genome Atlas mutation rate corn Muslims in American history Colima Jewish genetics Jalisco Population genetics Wendy Roth Smithsonian Magazine Michael Schwartz Roma People Olmec Harry Ostrer mitochondrial DNA MHC Thuya Kari Carpenter Etruscans methylation seafaring peopling of the Americas Promega Irish history Kurgan Culture Bigfoot NPR Caucasian Svante Paabo epigenetics Asian DNA religion genetic determinism DNA testing companies Michael Grant megapopulations Alabama Applied Epistemology Old Souls in a New World North Carolina Kennewick Man anthropology Pomponia Graecina haplogroup L Rafael Falk DNA Fingerprint Test Black Irish ethnic markers Plato The Nation magazine haplogroup J Theodore Steinberg hominids Melungeons autosomal DNA Choctaw Indians Chris Tyler-Smith Great Goddess Khazars Rutgers University Alec Jeffreys climate change Bill Tiffee Israel Walter Plecker Richard III Hohokam Phoenix Mexico Washington D.C. Ananya Mandal Sizemore surname Dienekes Anthropology Blog Rare Genes 23andme Bureau of Indian Affairs Harold Goodwin Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Lithuania cannibalism population genetics Johnny Depp Middle Ages DNA security Smithsonian Institution Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Scotland Tucson Lebanon Patrick Henry Phyllis Starnes Sea Peoples Scientific American Panther's Lodge Constantine Rafinesque National Geographic Daily News haplogroup M education Zizmer Life Technologies Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) news Columbia University andrew solomon Sam Kean Finnish people Henry VII DNA magazine haplogroup B Elvis Presley DNA Stacy Schiff Slovakia Micmac Indians Penny Ferguson Jewish GenWeb alleles Secret History of the Cherokee Indians DNA databases Melanesians Jack Goins INORA Nadia Abu El-Haj Russia CODIS markers crypto-Jews N. Brent Kennedy Gypsies Beringia Bering Land Bridge Barack Obama

Archive