If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!

888-806-2588

review of scientific and news articles on dna testing and popular genetics

Cherokees Spoke Greek and Came from East Mediterranean

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to Eastern Mediterranean Origins

In memoriam Gloria Farley

Donald N. Yates

DNA Consultants

Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010

SUMMARY  Three examples of North American rock art are discussed and placed in the context of ancient Greek and Hebrew civilization. The Red Bird Petroglyphs are compared with Greek and Hebrew coins and the Bat Creek Stone. The Possum Creek Stone discovered by Gloria Farley is identified as a Greek athlete’s victory pedestal. The Thruston Stone is interpreted as a record of the blending of Greek, Cherokee, Native American, Egyptian and Hebrew civilization. Keetoowah Society traditions, as captured in The Vision of Eloh’, are adduced to confirm a general outline of the origins of the Cherokee people in a Ptolemaic Greek trans-Pacific expedition joining pre-arriving Greeks, Jews and Phoenicians in the Ohio Valley around 100 c.e.  Recent DNA investigations showing Egyptian, Jewish and Phoenician female lineages and the Y chromosome of Old Testament Priests among the Cherokee are also touched upon. Greek words and customs in the Cherokee are reviewed as time permits. Slide projector requested.

A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. Evaluation by experts in Greek and Semitic epigraphy identifies two distinct inscriptions, one in Greek and one in Hebrew.  They appear to be contemporaneous with the Bat Creek Stone unearthed in the 1889 excavation of a tomb in East Tennessee by Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institution.

Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.  The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games.  The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

A third piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks and their intermarriage with Asiatic and other Indians in North America. In 1870, an engraved 19 x 15 inch limestone tablet was uncovered in a mound excavation on Rocky Creek near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee (see Ancient American, vol. 12, no. 77). Dating to an earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite. His Shawnee adversary clasps hands in a wedding ceremony with a Cherokee woman who bears wampum belts as a pledge of peace, has her hair in a maidenly bun, wears a Middle Eastern-style plaid kilt, and displays a large star of David. In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons. DNA studies confirm a mixture of “anomalous” East Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages such as Egyptian T, Greek U and Phoenician X with “standard” American Indian haplogroups A, B, C and D in the Cherokee and certain other Eastern Woodlands Indians.

To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., not a crude Cherokee scratching of around 1800 as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times. It occurs above what is, in all likelihood, an inscription in Maccabean-era Hebrew. The Sequoyan syllabary for which these Greek and Hebrew inscriptions were mistaken originated in the Greek world of the Bronze Age along with other syllabaries like Linear A, Linear B and Cypro-Minoan. The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins.  The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)

Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek
Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning
alomenoi
dakos
dasis
tynchana
etheloikeoi*
gennadas
huios Dios
illo, illas*
kakotechneo
kanon
karanos
kateis*
kerux
mona*
neika*
Ogyges
ouktenna
oulountata
skia
stix
tanawa*
(hoi en) telei
theatas*
theatron
Thrax
typho

wanderers (in a hopeless sense)
noxious, devouring beast, whale
hairy, shaggy like a beast
things that befall
volunteer settlers
noble
Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)
wrap, twist; rope
base arts, perjury, fraud
straight-edge used by athletes
a chief
assembly
herald
stopping place, way-station
contest
titan of Greek mythology
one not killed
declared healthy
ghost, shade
abominable
astronomical instrument
those in authority
spectator in a play
theater, assembly
 Thracian
raise a smoke, make sacrifice

eloh’; elohi
dakwa
dachi
tikano
eshelokee
kanat(i)
Su-too Jee
kilohi
kaktunta
kanuga
Koranu**
cahtiyis
skarirosken**
mona
anetcha
Ootschaye
Uktena
oolungtsata
atchina
Stichi
Tchlanua
tilihi
tetchata
tetchanun
tchaskiri**
Tathtowe,
  Tistoe
migrants, wanderers; earth
mythic great fish
hairy water monster
history
Cherokee; original people
doctor, hunter
mythic strong man
twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)
taboo regulation
scraper used by ballplayers
war chief title
assembly house
speaker, herald
land where the Elohi tarried
ballplay
rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)
name of a dragon or serpent
divining crystal for health
ghost; cedar
name of dangerous serpent
Great Hawk
brave, warrior
Playful Cherokee fairy
ceremonial enclosure
sorcerer, Stoneclad
ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)
 

Comments

Jim Sotirakos commented on 27-Feb-2012 04:53 PM

My parents were both from Greece. My DNA showed that I was 93% eastern european and 7% native American. The migration of our ancestors shows a continued migration from west to east until they came over the land bridge from Russia into north America.

Anonymous commented on 15-May-2012 09:28 PM

the basques are the hebrews..they spoke greek cos we founded ancient greece and all the nations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euUzRKuGwm8&feature=player_embedded

stan commented on 25-May-2012 12:02 AM

My grandma was full blood Cherokee and said "we mixed with the Greeks on the trail of tears..." I assumed she meant Creeks!

Sharee commented on 04-Jun-2013 08:41 AM

I know I'm Cherokee however I also know I'm Greek. I have a deep inner unexplainable love for Greece. My life's path has shown me who I am and expanded my spirituality. It continues to unfold.

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 12:38 PM

for the past 10 years my work with Indian artifacts face rocks as I coined the name has been censored by state government and archaeology,these pieces all not just from one area contain Mediterranean Greek Minoansee my pictures on Flickr my name is Lauren wEizel

Anonymous commented on 10-Oct-2014 01:20 PM

I havel.f. weizel found many artifacts hundreds of them for 10 years that have Mediterranean symbols and letters including Greek Minoan create an Egyptian not just on one area collected from Indian sites but in all areasand view my collection on Flickr my name is Lauren Weizel

Lauren Weizel commented on 24-Nov-2014 12:22 PM

In Raddisson and Lassales writings of early minnesota organizing fur trade its mentioned of the Christoes another name for the Cree (cretin) Gree then, they were described by the other notso natives as more humane simply bashing captives on the head instead of throwing them on the fire.
That turban seqouia has on reminds me of turkish ok, cherikish, my face rock collection from late 1990's are covered with many Mediterranian symbols as well as the owl, bear, and bull or buffalo. See flikr under lauren weizel out of the ancient indian toolbox into his art gal.


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.





Captcha Image


Recent Posts


Tags

surnames Hopi Indians haplogroup B Comanche Indians Arabia Thuya anthropology Kate Wong Wikipedia Melungeon Movement Normans Richard Buckley haplogroup J human migrations GlobalFiler Phyllis Starnes Gypsies First Peoples Albert Einstein College of Medicine Hohokam Robinson Crusoe bloviators Nova Scotia archeology Ashkenazi Jews Monya Baker Eric Wayner epigenetics Pueblo Grande Museum crypto-Jews Smithsonian Institution Nadia Abu El-Haj Waynesboro Pennsylvania Cooper surname National Museum of Natural History Cohen Modal Haplotype Myra Nichols immunology Y chromosomal haplogroups Elizabeth DeLand Plato Hadassah Magazine Discovery Channel religion genetic memory FBI Gregory Mendel Cismar Ari Plost Richard III FOX News Finnish people Old World Roots of the Cherokee admixture Abenaki Indians single nucleotide polymorphism Stan Steiner Arabic Penny Ferguson Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans Elzina Grimwood Old Souls in a New World Cismaru population genetics art history Family Tree DNA Colin Renfrew African DNA BBCNews Muslims in American history Cajuns DNA Forums haplogroup U haplogroup Z Donald N. Yates Hawaii New York Review of Books Les Miserables Janet Lewis Crain Chauvet cave paintings National Health Laboratories Acadians Jewish novelists mutation rate Sinaloa District of Columbia European DNA Stephen Oppenheimer pheromones Lithuania Sinti seafaring Hertfordshire Patagonia human leukocyte testing ancient DNA Majorca Peter Martyr Ziesmer, Zizmor hominids IntegenX Harold Sterling Gladwin Solutreans Dienekes Anthropology Blog Erika Chek Hayden Khoisan Puerto Rico N. Brent Kennedy Juanita Sims Grim Sleeper Belgium Denisovans Philippa Langley Stone Age Holocaust Israel powwows Mark Thomas Anne Marie Fine Population genetics 23andme Helladic art DNA security genealogy Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Early Jews of England and Wales Melanesians haplogroup T Gila River Asian DNA El Paso Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman palatal tori Asiatic Fathers of America Stephen A. Leon Ron Janke Panther's Lodge Anasazi Oxford Journal of Evolution andrew solomon Algonquian Indians Douglas Owsley Roma People Bill Tiffee haplogroup D Central Band of Cherokees Washington D.C. Germany DNA Diagnostics Center Barnard College race Sea Peoples Tintagel Tutankamun The Calalus Texts Marie Cheng Bryan Sykes Roberta Estes aliyah family history climate change London megapopulations Chris Stringer Bureau of Indian Affairs Patrick Henry Gustavo Ramirez Calderon haplogroup E haplogroup L Timothy Bestor Douglas C. Wallace Elizabeth C. Hirschman personal genomics Henry VII Kari Schroeder Neanderthals Akhenaten Tennessee Carl Zimmer David Cornish myths Fritz Zimmerman Melba Ketchum Native American DNA Test Richard Lewontin Central Band of Cherokee research Keros American history linguistics National Geographic Daily News Pomponia Graecina origins of art Neolithic Revolution CODIS markers INORA Current Anthropology Patrick Pynes The Nation magazine Michael Schwartz French Canadians Jon Entine Abraham Lincoln Indo-Europeans ISOGG James Stritzel James Shoemaker El Castillo cave paintings Rutgers University human leukocyte antigens Constantine Rafinesque haplogroup G Sorbs DNA magazine American Journal of Human Genetics Russell Belk Rush Limbaugh Lab Corp Nature Communications Lebanon Thruston Tablet Michoacan genetics mummies Isabel Allende Monica Sanowar microsatellites Holocaust Database Anne C. Stone Cleopatra Stacy Schiff haplogroup M Cherokee Freedmen Charlotte Harris Reese Odessa Shields Cox Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Zizmer population isolates Wendy Roth Great Goddess oncology evolution Middle Eastern DNA Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America Horatio Cushman William Byrd Riane Eisler Elvis Presley DNA Richard Dewhurst Anacostia Indians Sarmatians Cave art Melungeons Salt River Phoenix autosomal DNA methylation Russia Clovis George van der Merwede Zionism Indian Territory Jewish GenWeb Etruscans Rebecca L. Cann Britain HapMap Stony Creek Baptist Church Paleolithic Age mental foramen Shlomo Sand haplogroup N Mark Stoneking cancer pipe carving Mohawk giants Gunnar Thompson Eske Willerslev New York Academy of Sciences Daniel Defoe Havasupai Indians Bering Land Bridge New Mexico Tucson crosses Jan Ravenspirit Franz forensics prehistory Ripan Malhi Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Dragging Canoe Sizemore surname Mexico Jalisco Nayarit Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Maronites French DNA Secret History of the Cherokee Indians Cherokee DNA Project Science magazine John Butler Yates surname Charles Darwin Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies University of Leicester gedmatch corn Y chromosome DNA haplogroup X Mildred Gentry genomics labs Bradshaw Foundation Kennewick Man Egyptians Teresa Panther-Yates DNA Fingerprint Test King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Beringia Celts Victor Hugo occipital bun Black Dutch Zuni Indians Daily News and Analysis private allele Jews mitochondrial DNA DNA databases Ancestry.com Alabama news Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Marija Gimbutas AP Barack Obama phenotype Mucogee Creeks Panther's Lodge Publishers Terry Gross North Carolina horizontal inheritance Scotland Wendell Paulson Micmac Indians MHC Irish Central Turkic DNA Anglo-Saxons Asiatic Echoes X chromosome ethnic markers Tom Martin Scroft Amy Harmon Italy Colin Pitchfork Jim Bentley Jack Goins Phillipe Charlier Douglas Preston peopling of the Americas Satoshi Horai Pima Indians ethics Sir Joshua Reynolds Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Melungeon Heritage Association Moundbuilders Wales breast cancer Melungeon Union Hispanic ancestry Tucson China EURO DNA Fingerprint Test haplogroup H PNAS Kurgan Culture Ireland Henriette Mertz Charles Perou Chuetas Peter Parham haplogroup W Cree Indians consanguinity Romania Irish history NPR Choctaw Indians Luca Pagani Europe When Scotland Was Jewish alleles Middle Ages Khazars Sizemore Indians Ukraine b'nei anousim Rafael Falk cannibalism Miguel Gonzalez England Epigraphic Society Cherokee DNA Texas A&M University Sasquatch New York Times Virginia genealogy Pueblo Indians Applied Epistemology medicine Cornwall Bigfoot history of science Rare Genes education familial Mediterranean fever George Starr-Bresette clinical chemistry Tifaneg Navajo Indians Native American DNA Nature Genetics Maui Olmec rock art Louis XVI polydactylism Brian Wilkes Valparaiso University Arizona State University North African DNA Jewish contribution to world literature Alec Jeffreys Promega John Wilwol Genome Sciences Building Richmond California M. J. Harper Ostenaco FDA Phoenicians Leicester Nancy Gentry Genie Milgrom rapid DNA testing BATWING Telltown Caucasian Walter Plecker Columbia University Greeks Maya Austro-Hungary Antonio Torroni Rich Crankshaw hoaxes John Ruskamp DNA testing companies Navajo Ananya Mandal Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma Genex Diagnostics Michael Grant Kentucky health and medicine Bode Technology Johnny Depp Iran haplogroup R Alia Garcia-Ureste Altai Turks Henry IV Black Irish Arizona bar mitzvah DNA Fingerprint Test Chris Tyler-Smith haplogroup C prehistoric art Cancer Genome Atlas Mother Qualla Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Jewish genetics Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Bulgaria clan symbols far from the tree Theodore Steinberg Bentley surname research Ethel Cox genetic determinism Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Scientific American Slovakia Sam Kean Sonora Colima Gravettian culture ENFSI Mary Kugler university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Smithsonian Magazine metis Irish DNA King Arthur Hohokam Indians Discover magazine Freemont Indians statistics ethnicity Life Technologies Virginia DeMarce Israel, Shlomo Sand Harry Ostrer B'nai Abraham Basques Nikola Tesla Taino Indians Oxford Nanopore Joel E. Harris ged.com Magdalenian culture Kari Carpenter Silverbell Artifacts India Joseph Jacobs Mary Settegast Svante Paabo Bryony Jones Jesse Montes

Archive