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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Four

Friday, October 10, 2014

Part Four is the conclusion to our series of reports on the "anomalous Cherokees." Depicted left is author Donald Yates in Rome.

Read the full paper
More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee


J, a Major Jewish Haplogroup

Haplogroup J, termed Jasmine in the scheme of Oxford Ancestors, is believed to have originated in the Old Near East and to have moved north and west into Europe, especially after the spread of agriculture beginning 5000-3000 BCE. It is found throughout Europe with particularly high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea and Russia, as well as in Bedouins and Yemeni, where it reaches frequencies of 25% or higher. J is a major Jewish female lineage (Thomas 2002), being a strong maternal contributor to Jewish, Arab, Greek and Italian populations. J is also the apparent carrier of congenital longevity and a host of “Jewish” diseases that are just beginning to be understood by medical science.

There were 6 J's in Phase II (nos. 3, 8, 32, 35, 41 and 63, composing 9%), 4 in Phase I and 17 in the CBC data, making for an aggregate of 10.7%, somewhat less than the level for the Middle East and Europe (12%).

There were multiple matches between participants. An example is James Richard Stritzel (8), whose form of J1b1 matched No. 63  on HVS1 with several mismatches on HVS2. Stritzel's grandmother, Eunice Mable, was adopted out of the Mohawk tribe and given the last name Ahern abt. 1900. His rare haplotype is similar to five J's reported in Phase I. Of these, Nadine Rosebush's type is not matched anywhere in the world. In other words, these J types seem to be specific to the micro-population in which they are found today and are not widespread. One might make an argument of inferred ancestry as follows, although other interpretations are also possible. The germ line and enclosing population may have originated in classical antiquity. Instances survived to the present in North America only because they were part of the discrete and continuous existence of a "people." This "people" had spread intact by discontinuous, long-distance migration from its point of origin, where in the course of centuries its presence became extinct.

Rarest of the Rare:  I, N, V and W

Turning now to the four haplogroups that first cropped up in Phase II, we have one or two individuals each with I (54 Swinney, 48 Francisco), N (2 Kellam), V (39 Ponder) and W (30 Carpenter, 31 Sponenburgh). Percentages, phylogeny and phylogeographic patterns are probably not meaningful. Let us note, however, that one of the I's (54) had no matches anywhere, while the other (48) matched Dicie Gray, born 1828 in North Carolina. For haplogroup N, the sole example Norma Kellam (no. 2, N1A) traces her mitochondrial line to Roanoke, Virginia. She had several unique SNPs and matched only a handful of other people. In medieval times, N gave birth to one of the four major Ashkenazi Jewish founder lineages, probably in the Rhine Basin.




Fig. 14. James Stritzel (8) was told by previous labs that in “no way” could his DNA be Native American. His mother’s line, however, was confirmed as Cherokee (or Mohawk) despite being an unusual type. Here the Manchester, Wash. resident carves a Deer Pipe after spending part of last summer training under a sixth-generation Lakota Nation Pipe Maker. 

Fig. 15. Norma Kellam (2) of Westminster, Calif. has maternal line ancestry in Virginia and matched only five Mitosearch users, two of whom also traced to Virginia. The other three pointed to Tennessee, Mississippi and unknown origins. Her maternal grandmother was Daisy Brooks (b. 1894, m. Cronk) and great-grandmother, Nancy Ann Tingery (m. John Sellars Brooks).

African L Haplotypes

Surprisingly, there were 6 L haplotypes in Phase II (9.0%). In Phase I, there were 3 (5.8%), and the CBC data include 7 (5.2%), bringing the total across all datasets to 16, or 6.3%. The most common haplogroup was L3, the oldest African lineage, associated with and most common today in East Africa. If the African DNA were the simple effect of gene flow into the Cherokee from historical-era slaves and freemen, one would expect West African centered L2 to dominate the results, as this is far and away the most prevalent type carried by African Americans (as much as 50%). L3, on the other hand, is characterized by a relatively greater presence in circum-Mediterranean and European populations. According to one authority, "L3 is more related to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most divergent African clusters L1 and L2" (Maca-Meyer et al. 2001). Sub-Saharan African L lineages account for 10% of the population in Saudi Arabia, and L3 occupies a prominent position (72% of them; Abu-Amero et al. 2008). It has also been observed in Slavic or East European populations, especially among Ukrainian Jews, possibly vestigial admixture from ancient slaves in the Roman Empire and Islam. L3 accounts for only one-third of L lineages within Africa.

We will highlight three L3's. Shelia Maria Wilson (52), who lives in New Mexico, has 20 mutations on mitochondrial control regions 1 and 2, the highest number we have ever studied. Generally, the more mutations, the more ancient the type. There was, however, not even a remote match in databases, making hers a unique type reported only in North America. Wilson knows her genealogy only as far back as her great-grandmother, Mrs. Julia Adams. The surname came from the Georgia slave master of her father Harry Adams. Harry, who called himself "Mali blasta," was kidnapped in Mali as a pre-teen shortly before the Civil War. Shelia's mother Willie Mae Adams, born in 1927, remembered seeing the whelps on her grandfather's back where he was whipped. "I had been informed by some relatives," writes Wilson, "that my great-grandmother was at least part Native American and White."  Another L3 (47, Lovancia Francisco) matched a historical Native woman, A Te Anu, Muscogee.

 

Fig. 16. Willie Mae Adams was born June 2, 1904 in Butler County, Ga. She was the youngest girl of seven children. Her mother was a mix of black, Caucasian and Native American.

Fig. 17. Shelia Maria Wilson (participant 52) carries an old and rare form of L3 that apparently left no descendants except for her and her family.

 

Gregory Damon Haynes (no. 16) has another unique and otherwise unreported L3 haplotype, with a SNP found in no other person (16163G). His father had a rare American Indian Q haplotype with relatives on two Indian census rolls. His maternal grandmother was Lily Marie Benjamin (Blythe), born October 15, 1922 in North Carolina. Could his maternal line have been Cherokee? The question remains open, as it is extremely difficult to investigate the lines of ex-slaves.

 

Fig. 10. Haplogroup Distribution versus Europe and Other Populations, Based on Richards et al. 2000.

Hg

N=

%

Europe

Egypt

Middle

East

Eastern

Med.

T

27

23.1

8.4

23.4

11.9

6.0

U

23

19.7

22.2

7.8

26.3

16.4

H

15

12.0

53.5

14.0

36.8

47.9

J

11

9.4

9.5

6.3

11.4

12.7

L

9

7.7

15.6

K

6

5.1

5.8

3.1

6.2

3.6

I

2

1.5

4.7

N

1

0.8

6.3

Total

n=117

~80%

n=1021

n=64

n=2736

n=165

Conclusions

If we are to accept our sample as valid for its purposes, several salient parameters of the study population labeled "Anomalous Cherokees" seem to leap out from the table of haplogroup frequency comparisons (Fig. 10).

1) The first striking feature is the high amount of T lineages evident in Cherokee descendants. T is the leading haplogroup (23.1%), with a frequency on a par with modern-day Egyptians (23.4%) and Arabs (24.4%). That is elevated by a factor of 4 over the East Mediterranean levels, three times that of Europe and the United States and twice that of the Middle East. T is thus a defining mark of Cherokee ancestry. Where did it come from? We can safely rule out recent European admixture.  As we have discussed again and again, there was no available source for a huge, sudden influx of female-mediated Middle Eastern DNA on the American frontier.  Even Sephardic Jews (11-14%), many of whom were also Indian traders, could hardly have accounted for such admixture. Moreover, had it occurred in the colonial period or more recently the diversity, age and unique characteristics of the T haplotypes would not have yielded the patterns noticed in this paper. Most T's would have matched people in the Old World and we would simply be looking at an effect of migration. Instead, we have a North American branch of T with peculiar SNPs which is evidently a cross-section of a very old population originating in the Old World. The thesis of Donald Yates' study of Cherokee history is that an expedition of Ptolemaic Egyptians and others in the 3rd century BCE served as the nucleus of settlers that became the Eshelokee (Cherokee). If this historical model is correct, there was a severe bottleneck of DNA accompanying the establishment of the Cherokee, with many founder effects—something suggested by the frequent cross-matches, high degree of interrelatedness and clustering of types in our data.

2) The second glaring figure is the relatively low amount of H (12%), which is the leading haplogroup in Europeans (~50%). If the admixture were attributable to European women in the colonial period we would expect it to be much higher.  

3) The third observation we can make is the similarity of haplogroups strongly associated with Jews (J, K at 14.5%) to European levels (15.3%). At whatever time period admixture occurred, whether in ancient or modern times, Jewish women likely formed part of it.  Men cannot pass mitochondrial DNA. Like other contributions to the gene pool, J and K came from a feeder population or sub-population that had families on board. In other words, JK haplotypes could not have been the result of shipwrecked Portuguese sailors, Arab or Jewish merchants, soldiers or any of the other suspects often trotted forth. Judging also from the uniqueness of JK types and their diversity, we are looking at a Jewish signal deeply embedded in the structure of Cherokee populations.

4) L haplogroup frequency (7.7%) is about half that of Egypt (15.6%). East African-centered L3 predominates, not West and Central African-oriented L1 and L2 haplogroups, which are twice as abundant, and which define the majority of slaves and their descendants in the New World. We are unsure how to read this. It may be that in the nature of things, African American lines were under-sampled. Federal regulations and the controversy embroiling the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma in their on-again-off-again rejection of freedmen as citizens might have served as a disincentive to blacks' testing their DNA. Blacks are also hampered in tracing genealogies, unlike whites or Hispanics, or indeed Native Americans. 

Certainly, however, our data suggests there has always been a constant African component in Cherokee DNA, one that resembles North and East African populations rather than West and Central Africans. Beginning around the start of the Common Era, the Bantu expansion swamped all Africa with L1 and L2 genes. A high proportion of L3 could mean that admixture with the Cherokee predates that event. We have records of Phoenician colonization efforts as massive as the "30,000  desert-dwelling Moors from the hinterland of Carthage" in about 500 BCE (Yates 2012, p. 32). Mining operations then and now used a large number of women slaves, who were prized for their agility in negotiating small openings as well as their becoming inured to cruel conditions (this is still the norm in Egypt, India and Bolivia, though the workers are no longer legally considered slaves; see Del Mar 1902). The clan that specifically included black-skinned people among the Cherokee was called the Blue Paint or Panther (Ani-Sahoni; see Panther-Yates 2013, pp. 30-31). It was related to the original (Red) Paint Clan, named for the Paint People, or Phoenicians (Ani-Wodi).

5) Finally, we might remark on the minor (I, N, V, W), unknown (I 33, 36, 37, 40; II 33) and missing haplogroups (G, HV, pre-HV, M and other Asian types).  I, N, V and W are minimally adduced in Egyptian, Palestinian, Arab and Turkish populations.  They round out our picture of the original genetic inputs to the Cherokee, showing that the source of "admixture" was deep seated and diverse. The Cherokee population structure seems to be rather an effect of long-distance travel and conquest than of gradually developing encroachment, migration or genetic drift.     

Admixture, just like the word "anomalous," is a relative term. Its use depends on one's perspective. Geneticists, as we have seen, tend to privilege a rather narrow body of recent U.S. and European scientific literature. It is time to de-colonize the human past and open our eyes to the diversity of American Indian peoples. The personal genealogies of over one hundred Cherokee descendants contradict popular and professional received wisdom about Indian nations.

 

Addendum:  Begging the Question

For science to be separated from pseudoscience, its findings must obey the rule of falsifiability. This term has often been misunderstood, but what it means according to philosophers of science is that empirical statements such as "All swans are white" must be "such that to verify them and to falsify them must both be logically possible" (Popper 2005). Otherwise, as Wolfgang Pauli famously remarked, an argument "is not only not right, it is not even wrong."

In plain language, we could say that so far from barking up the wrong tree, that dog don't hunt.

"All swans are white" is a falsifiable statement. It can be tested by observation and shown to be generally true (though false in cases of black swans). But such statements as "All American Indians descend from haplogroups A-D and sometimes X" is not falsifiable. Neither this generalization nor its converse is testable in any experiential way. No amount of corollaries, exceptions to the rule or qualification will fix it.

"A woman of haplogroup A (or B, or X, or T, or W) founded a Cherokee matriline," on the other hand, is falsifiable. It is scientifically true in certain individual cases and datasets, as claimed in the present study ("experiment"), just as it is scientifically false in other instances.

Much of the surmises of science about the peopling of the Americas can be said to be on the wrong track. It can neither be proved true nor decided false that ancestors of American Indians crossed a hypothetical Bering land bridge at some time in the unknown past. Let us hope that the growing demand for truth from amateur roots-seekers and test takers will force professionals to predicate their research agendas and phrase their findings more carefully in the future. If they do not, they will be failing the public trust. There is also a need for science reporters and writers to frame their stories more responsibly. We have always said, "There are Indians and Indians."

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Logan, J. (2008). “The Subclades of mtDNA Haplogroup J and Proposed Motifs for Assigning Control-Region Sequences into These Clades. Journal of Genetic Genealogy 4:12-26.

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Panther-Yates, Donald N. (2013). Cherokee Clans:  An Informal History. Cherokee Chapbooks 4. Phoenix:  Panther's Lodge.

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Pynes, Patrick (2003). "Cherokee Traditions among the Talleys, Gentrys and Associated Families of Texas and Arkansas:  A Genealogical and Historical Exploration." Journal of Gentry Genealogy 3(6).

Richards, Martin et al. (2000). “Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool.” American Journal of Human Genetics 67:1251-76. Supplementary Data. URL:  http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/~vincent/founder2000/index.html.

Raghavan, M. et al. (2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian Genome Reveals Dual Ancestry of Native Americans." Nature 2/505(7481):87-91.

Richards, Martin and Vincent Macaulay (2000). “The Mitochondrial Gene Tree Comes of Age.” American Journal of Human Genetics 68:1315-20.

Roth, Wendy D. (2012). Race Migrations. Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race. Stanford:  Stanford UP.

Schurr, Theodore G. (2000). “Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World,” American Scientist 88:246-53.

Stone, A.C. and M. Stoneking (1993). "Ancient DNA from a Pre-Columbian Amerindian Population." Am J Phys Anthropol. 1993 Dec;92(4):463-71.

Swaminathan, Nikhil (2014). "America, in the Beginning." Archaeology 67/5:22-29.

Sykes, Brian (2001). The Seven Daughters of Eve. The Science that Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry. New York: Norton.

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Torroni, A. et al (1993). "Asian Affinities and Continental Radiation of the Four Founding Native American mtDNAs." Am J Hum Genet. Sep 1993; 53(3): 563–590.

Torroni, A. et al. (2006). "Harvesting the Fruit of the Human mtDNA Tree." Trends Genet 22(6);339-45.

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Van Oven, Mannis and Manfred Kayser (2008)."Updated Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Global Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation." Human Mutation 30(2): E386-E394. 

Wilson, Joseph Andrew Park (2011). Material Cultural Correlates of the Athapaskan Expansion:  A Cross-Disciplinary Approach. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida.  

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Project data available upon request from dpy@dnaconsultants.com.

Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee (Phase I)


  

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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Three

Thursday, October 09, 2014

We continue the series of reports on Phase II of our Cherokee DNA Project with case histories for the various haplogroups in the study. 

Read the full paper
More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee

Case Histories:  Where There's Smoke

Non-anomalous Types A-D and X

Of the eleven cases of classic Native American haplotypes, none knew beforehand they had an "approved" type. None belonged to a Federal tribe or lived on on a reservation, although two (Michael Joseph Little Bear, Sr., participant 17, A, and Tino De la Luz Thundereagle, participant 10, D) had Native American names. The majority joined the project just like the others to confirm genealogical rumors or traditions of having an Indian ancestor somewhere in the family tree (usually a distant unknown grandmother). Their primary motive for testing, in other words, was to find the truth, not to qualify for tribal enrollment or benefits. Many came from Latino or Hispanic backgrounds. Among American Hispanic people, at least, Indian ancestry or identifying as indio has historically not been seen as a socially desirable family trait, though a nationwide trend in recent years has witnessed Hispanics using "American Indian" to identify themselves on census forms (Roth 2012; Decker 2011).  

The results of the test, according to Jesse Montes, a third generation American (20, C, photo above), were both surprising and galvanizing. "I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American, and it was such a relief to find out I have a strong line of it from my mother. I am usually a very quiet person, but I am so excited about this that I want to be recognized. This is me!" His mitochondrial type had five unique SNPs and fully matched four Puerto Rican matrilines, and no other type in the world. His mother's maternal grandmother was born in the southern part of Puerto Rico near Ponce. Family traditions mentioned Taino in both his mother's and father's lines. "I am hoping to now be able to connect with some of my ancestors online on my mom's side to discover even more from the Native American DNA test," said Montes. "It has given me a golden key." (See interview by Teresa Panther-Yates, September 23, 2014, on DNA Consultants Blog, "Jesse Montes:  Where Do I Come From.")

Leroy James (25, D) had a rare mitochondrial type that matched the descent of just three people worldwide (HVR1 only), Kitty Prince of Bear River Athabaskans (Mattole), an anonymous Caucasian American (Twygdam 69) and an unknown line in Mitosearch (7MP7K). Katherine Frances-Prince was the wife of James Prince of the Mattole and a member of the Bear River Band of Rohnerville Rancheria located south of Eureka, in Loleta, California.

Fig. 3. Kitty Prince in 1921. Native American Indian - Old Photos Facebook Page (public domain photos). Kitty Prince's DNA (haplotype D) matched that of participant 25.

Fig. 4. Nancy Ward Statue. See Yates (2012) 107. Nancy Ward's DNA matched that of Patricia Gurule of Denver, Colorado. © D. Ray Smith. Used with permission.

Patricia Gurule (66) was a walk-in client at Denver DNA Center, an affiliate of DNA Consultants. She knew "absolutely nothing" about her heritage before taking an autosomal ancestry test from us and then joining the Cherokee DNA project. Her type of C matched, among several New Mexican , Sonora, Zacateca and Chihuahua lines, the DNA of Nancy Ward, the Cherokee Beloved Woman and Tribal Mother (ca. 1738–1822 or 1824; Mitosearch record 8U6AP and CBC 115669, Allene Gay Kearney; see Yates [2012], Chapter 8, pp. 106-117 on Ward). It also matched Gayl A. Gibson Wilson, an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and participant in our pilot project, Southern U.S. Native American DNA. Wilson, who is Wolf Clan, has traced her descent to Sarah Consene, a daughter of Dragging Canoe, born about 1800 in the Cherokee Nation East (see Yates [2012] 48-49, 158). This is evidently an ancient and widespread haplotype in Mexico and the United States, linked in Cherokee genealogies with the Wolf Clan, the traditional clan of war chiefs and most prevalent affiliation of Cherokees since the nineteenth century (Panther-Yates [2013] 4-10). In "Nancy Ward DNA" we have a clear example of exact correspondence between genetic matriline and a historically documented, genealogically proven, tribally specific clan. 

Haplogroup H: Thorn in the Side of Theory

Before our studies, haplogroup H had been reported in small frequencies in surveys of the Cherokee but routinely explained as post-Columbian European admixture (Schurr 2000). As noted in "Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages" (2009), it is the quintessential European haplogroup, responsible for about 40% of European populations today (Sykes 2001). If our sample reflected non-native women settling among the Cherokee and not the genetic trace of pre-Columbian founder types, one would expect the H to dominate the scene. Instead, we found H in only 16% of the samples in Phase II and 8% in Phase I. In the CBC data, on the other hand, it occupied the top position with 40%—exactly as we would expect from a cross-section of European Americans.

There were 11 subjects with H in Phase II. These were about equally divided between haplotypes that were unmatched or rare, judged to be possibly ancient Native American on the strength of the matches (5), and haplotypes of very probable recent European origin, several of them in fact corresponding to the CRS (6). All of the latter failed to submit convincing genealogies linking their form of H with descent from a Native American woman. The former (9, 11, 12, 27, 33), on the other hand, invariably had unique, unmatched SNPs (Fig. 1) combined with compelling genealogies. For instance, Joel Kenneth Harris, Sr. (11) had several unique mutations, including the rare 16319A, also occurring in haplogroups D, A and J*. Add these 5 to 3 similar cases of H from Phase I and the true percentage of likely Native American H matrilines project-wide appears to be 6.7%.

James Eric Walker (9) was one of the strong cases. He started family research only in 2010. Born in North Carolina, the 57-year-old, 6-foot-five-inch-tall Walker lives in Mobile, Alabama. "There was a lot of so-called dark stories, as in my Jewish-Cherokee Walker and James lines," he said. "So my inner drive sent me into the world of paper trail ancestry . . . I found so much sadness with my mother's side, but the stories were true . . . DNA did in fact put my mother's line to bed." In autosomal testing he matched a Native American forensic population labeled Brazilian Belem Amazonians (n=325). His documented and published family tree verifies direct descent from Nancy Beacham, born about 1845 in Virginia, the wife of an emigrant born 1837 in Russia (both died in Mobile).

Mary England (12) had the reference series on sector 1 but a rare mutation in sector 2 that caused her to match only four users in Mitosearch, all of whom reported unknown origins for the type. She traces her maternal line securely to Sally Bingham, born 1833 in Knox County, Kentucky (and tentatively beyond). An intertwined line in her family tree goes back to Hatchet Grey Letty Durham, a reported full blood Cherokee, born in Wilkes County, Georgia, who died September 1, 1843 in Floyd County, Kentucky. Another Cherokee line she has assiduously traced zigzags back to Aaron Brock (Chief Red Bird, born 1727, died February 10, 1787, Clay County, Kentucky.

Fig. 5. Great-grandmother Beulah David Cane was born March 16, 1878, the daughter of Nancy Beacham, born about 1845 in Virginia.

Fig. 6. Grandmother Beulah Alexandra deFleron (married name Soderquist) was born November 7, 1905 in Mobile, Alabama.

Fig. 7. Participant 9, James Eric Walker, has H ancestry that may be Native American. His grandmother and great-grandmother were known as Seminole-Cherokee.

A third H is Sharon Rebecca Chatterton (nee Toms). Her unique configuration of mutations brings up no one in the Cambridge Mitochondrial Concordance and produces only a very few exact matches in Mitosearch, all from North America (4U6K5, GECV7, Y9UQC). One of her maternal ancestors was a Frazier.

Fig. 8. Grandmother Peramelia Vaughn was born September 22, 1901, in Coffee County, Tennessee. After marriage she went by Amelia Vaughn Street. She died October 7, 1987 in San Pablo, Calif.

Fig. 9. 68-year-old Sharon R. Chatterton, participant 27, of Lady Lake, Florida, is an H who traces the line to 3rd-great-grandmother Lucinda Gilley, born 1801 in Franklin Co., Ga. Lucinda's mother was named Dorcas. She married Zachariah Bush in Rutherford Co., Tenn.

The earliest female ancestor's identity in all these cases support the phenomenon I have described elsewhere of an Indian trader, typically Jewish or crypto-Jewish, marrying the daughter of a Cherokee chief or headman (Yates 2012:46ff.). The mitochondrial evidence tells us that H was part of the pre-contact Cherokee population. H did not enter the Native American haplogroup array with a colonial English woman marrying an Indian ("admixture"). While it is fashionable, and even politically ordained, to dismiss the Cherokee grandmother "myth," which can be traced to a single, suspect source in the literature, and which grew legs on the Internet so that it now seems unassailable, the uncomfortable truth seems to be that a goodly number of families who do not deserve to be called "Indian wannabes" have a bona-fide Cherokee matriarch corresponding approximately to that description in their family tree (Martin 1996).

T Haplotype Diversity and Sephardic Motifs

Our initial report remarked on the high incidence of haplotype T and compared its frequency to that of Egypt (25%). Phase II produced T's amounting to 19.4% of haplogroups in the sample, bringing its overall presence project-wide (n=119) to 24.4%, exactly the same number to three decimal points reported in Iraqi and Iranian Jews (n=217, see Bedford, Table 4). Compare the high level in Cherokee descendants and Egypt together with Misrahi Jews to the much lower frequencies of T in Northwest Spain (6.9%), Portugal (9.2), Ashkenazi Jews (4.8), Sephardic Jews (11-14%), Great Britain and Ireland (9.1), North Central Italy (13.7), Western Saudi Arabia (12.5), Mitosearch (mostly U.S., 9.1) and National Geographic (8.7), and the T-intensive populations can be seen surpass all the others by a factor of 2 to 5. On the basis of this comparison, we can safely call the T in aggregate among the anomalous Cherokees Middle Eastern in scale and importance.    

In 2012, attention focused on T5, renamed T2e, and Felice Bedford of the University of Arizona published her article, "Sephardic Signature in Haplogroup T Mitochondrial DNA" (2012). "It was found that the rare motif [in subhaplotype T2e] belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish–Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry [sic]," Bedford wrote of the new Sephardic signature, T2e5. She dated the founder of the signature back to "one woman from Iberia who lived between 500 and likely 2000 years ago." So were there any instances of the new Sephardic signature, defined by mutations 16114T and 16192T, in our anomalous Cherokees? No, unsurprisingly, since Bedford found only 12 in an exhaustive search of world databases, but there were two cases of the parent sub-subhaplotype T2e, defined by mutations 16153A and 150T. They are Cheryl Green (Phase I participant 34) and Evie Nagy (Phase II participant 22). And as Bedford reminds us, "Suspicion of a signature in a minority ethnic group can be initiated with as little as a haplotype match in two unrelated individuals from that group." 

The sheer diversity of T types in Cherokee descendants, just like their high ratio, would seem to point to a source in the Middle East, not Europe. Although the phylogeny of T subclades and nomenclature is still somewhat unsettled (Pike et al. 2010), the prevalence and absence of subhaplogroups across different studies show strong similarities between the Cherokee sample and Iraqi and Irani Jews. Thus, T2b, which occurs at an almost non-existent level in Iraq, and reaches a high of 4.2% in Great Britain, is completely lacking in the Cherokee sample. T2e (6.9%) has a relatively high presence, as in the Ottoman Sephardim, Western Saudi Arabia and Italy. T1 (5.8%) is about the same as in Iraqi and Irani Jews (5.1%). Finally, there is a large amount, one-third of T subclades, categorized as T*. Their prevalence could be read as a sign of the antiquity of the Cherokee sample, with many T types which are common in the source population, but which have died out, not survived or have escaped being studied in standard contemporary genetic surveys. This inference is strengthened by the numerous unmatched T mutations, although a caveat should be added that the branches and sub-branches of T, as already noted, have not been completely dissected. Some of the T* haplotypes may be falsely assigned or need re-assigning.

Apropos of matching population contours, let it be noted here that many of the T's in Phase II volunteered information that they are Jewish by faith and/or descent.

Tara in the New World

Kathleen Rogalla of Panama City, Fla. (49) joined the project in July 2010, after learning family secrets from her 92-year-old mother (Fig. 11) and receiving "disappointing" results from other companies. Of one, she wrote, " My test results came in a few days ago and I was shocked and dismayed by the results. They have me as 100% European with no chance of being Native at all. That also means that there is little chance of being matched with others who have Native blood." Subsequent testing revealed "a trace" of Asian ancestry. Her maternal line traces to Elizabeth Hensley of Stafford County, Va. But her genealogy on file with the project also identifies Deborah Cook(e), wife of William Chisholm (born 1720 in Amelia County, Va.) as a remote ancestor. Amy or Annie, no last name, was Deborah's mother. Both Deborah and her husband were associated with the Cherokee in historical documents. Rogalla descends from their daughter Sarah, who married Thomas Tinsley. Another daughter, Margaret, married her first cousin John Chisholm, and their daughter, Annie, married John Walling of the well-known long hunter family in Tennessee. A son of William and Deborah Chisholm, John D., was a friend and advisor to Doublehead.

According to Rogalla's research, "A descendant's wife, Mary Ann Roberts filed an application to the Dawes Commission on behalf of her children. They were rejected. She said 'My children have Indian blood that comes from their father Eli Roberts who gets his Indian blood from his mother Joanna Tinsley (daughter of Thomas Tinsley and Sarah Chisholm) and her from her mother(Sarah Chisholm). Her mother was the sister of Absolom and William Chisholm whose names should appear on the Old Settler's Rolls west of the Mississippi River."

Another excellent witness for Cherokee enrollment, B.W. Alberty, testified: "I am a resident of Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation. I met Dave and William Chisholm near Belview Texas and they lived there on the [illegible] and I was introduced to them as living Cherokee's by George Harnage and also by William Harnage that is I know about them said they were kin of old Tom Chisholm of the Cherokee Nation (Thomas Chisholm was the interim 3rd Chief of the Western Cherokee Nation in Arkansas). Hornage told me they were relatives of old Tom Chisholm. That was the year of 1852 or 53. I would judge Dave Chisholm to be about 45 years old and William I think was the younger of the two."

 

John Ratling Gourd testified: "I am a resident of Tahlequah District, Cherokee Nation and am about 65 years old. I was acquainted with Absolom and William Chisholm when they lived low down in Georgia. This was about the time the Cherokee came to this country. They were among the first who left country and came west. They were Cherokee's by blood in at least that was looked upon as such. I first saw Absolom and William Chisholm at a council on the fork called by John ross in regard to the division of some money. These parties voted to not divide the money. They looked like Cherokee's and appeared to be half or three fourth. I saw William Tinsley several times. I understand he married into the Chisholm family."

These historical accounts are given here in detail to document the early Cherokee affiliation of the line. More could be added. Suffice it to say that the Chisholms and all their marriage partners were well known to Cherokee leaders from the 1760s on, first in the East and later, continuously in the West. The famous Chisholm Trail was named for the family. All the names are well documented in Cherokee and Melungeon genealogies, as well as U.S. Indian treaties, chiefs-lists and agency records. If we estimate the earliest named Cherokee's birthdate to be around 1700, we are in a period when the first intermarriages between English settlers and Indian women took place. It is unlikely that Amy or Annie was the daughter of an English woman, and the line she founded was "admixture." There is every reason on genealogical grounds to regard her T* haplotype as Cherokee, not Eurasian.

Amy-Annie apparently produced many direct descendants in the United States and Canada and had distant genetic cousins in Europe. Her prolific form of T* (16126C  16294T 16296T  16519C 73G 263G 315.1C) exactly matched individuals with origins in England, Cornwall, Quebec, France, Mississippi, California, North Carolina, Russia, Texas and Florida. Many of the haplotype assignments and origins were "unknown." As it turned out, they also matched Timothy Joseph Benjamin (18), an adoptee residing in Alva, Florida, who subsequently was able to have the Catholic  charity unseal his adoption records, and who learned that he was born in Burlington, Vermont, his given name at birth Joseph David Ward.

The verdict in Rogalla's report stated: 

 

Although not one of the classic Native American lineages (A, B, C, D, and X ‐‐ Schurr), T has been discovered in the Cherokee, Choctaw and other East Coast Indians (data on file; see DNA Consultants Blog, “Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee”). Most investigators attribute this to recent European admixture. But T haplotypes without exact Old World matches (we exclude T2 matches from consideration) could just as well be considered Native American if as prevalent as the subject’s is in North America. The majority of the T* matches in Mitosearch are possibly Native American in our estimation. In the presence of a genealogical tradition of the female line being Native American the haplotype should therefore be pronounced Native American. The matches in Mitosearch to Tennessee, North Carolina and surrounding states point to the Cherokees, although matches in Canada suggest a Canadian indigenous woman (where T has also been identified). The T* matches that are truly European (such as V2DER, Russia) may represent a remnant of the original Middle Eastern lineage that survived in Europe, but the largest expansion of the lineage was clearly in North America.

Fig. 11. Mother of Kathleen Rogalla (T*), Ethel Estell Caywood Christian, about 1930.

Fig. 12. Karen Worstell's grandmother Odessa Shields Cox (shown with her husband William M. Cox and Karen's mother Ethel as a baby about 1922) was born about 1904 in Indian Territory. She was known as Dessie. "My mother cut off all connection with her own mother sometime before I was born," says Worstell. "My grandmother has strikingly Indian features and I do wonder if perhaps she was an adopted Indian child." 

Fig. 13. Karen Worstell (56) tested as having a rather widely distributed T2c that matched Cherokees on official rolls, even though T is universally considered a non-Indian type. "There was tremendous secrecy about anything related to my Indian background," says Worstell. My grandfather used to call me 'squaw,' which would infuriate my mother."

Ward is a common Cherokee surname. A T2 who also happened to have the birth name of Timothy Benjamin (18) was Deann Ward of Vincennes, Indiana (19). Ward traced her unbroken female descent to a 3rd-great-grandmother, Olive Thompson, born about 1800, died 1850 in Lincoln County, Tenn. Her parents are unknown. Olive Thompson married Garrett Merrill of Rowan County, North Carolina, a locale bordering on the Cherokee. Ward's great-grandmother, Emily Roper (a surname common on Cherokee rolls), was born in Tennessee, February 19, 1848, the daughter of Joseph Roper. 

Karen Freeman Worstell (57) is a risk management professional in Gig Harbor, Washington, who wrote on April 24, 2010, "I just learned of the potential link between Cherokee and Eastern European Jews this morning. I was told I am Cherokee by my mother, and Scottish/Irish on my father's side. I am also deeply involved in the Messianic Jewish movement."  Her rather widely distributed T2c haplotype exactly matched two participants in Phase I of the DNA Cherokee Project. Patrick Pynes, a professor of indigenous studies in Arizona, was a descendant on Mitosearch, traced the line to Mildred Gentry (1792-1852) and Nancy Gentry Little (b. 1801). "According to oral tradition, Nancy Gentry was of Cherokee descent," he wrote for the record. "She moved with her family from Tennessee to Clark County, Arkansas, in 1817. During the 1830s she lived with her husband James Little and children in Washington County, Arkansas. Several of her neighbors were of documented Cherokee descent or had family connections with documented Cherokees. Nancy's mother's name was possibly 'Delilah Clark.' Her father was likely Tyre Gentry of South Carolina."

Worstell says her mother passed away after a lengthy illness at the age of 90 and kept her family origins a secret. "Once when I asked her why, she said, 'I want you to have friends to play with.'" Worstell never met her maternal grandparents but always heard stories of Cherokee relatives. One of her ancestors was on the Trail of Tears. She has published an elaborate family tree on Ancestry.com but continues, like Patrick Pynes, to find the earliest link.  Her maternal line research comes to an end with direct maternal ancestor Catherine Reed, born in 1776 in Loudoun County, Va. She married John Carlin on November 13, 1799, in Harrison County, (West) Virginia and died in Barbour County. Several of the figures she has identified in her research were labeled as mulatto in local records. Her mother's paternal grandmother was Choctaw. Says Worstell, " I don't know if I am chasing a myth or not."

Haplogroups U, U2, U5 and K

Haplogroup U is very old and deep seated in Eurasian populations. Its top-level subclades can all be seen as haplogroups in their own right. Those uncovered in this phase of our study consist of U, U2, U3, U5 and K (formerly U8). There were no examples of U4, characteristic especially of Balto-Slavic countries and Finland; U6, associated with Berbers; U7 primarily from the East Mediterranean to India; or U9, spread from Ethiopia and the Arabian Peninsula to Pakistan.

The complex mega-haplogroup was born on the edge of Northeast Africa and Arabia some 60,000 or more years ago, when the first Homo Sapiens exited the African continent. Complex human societies began with U. In Europe, where U types today (11%) are the second most common after H (40+%), U was the first lineage to encounter and interbreed with the declining Neanderthals. U was identified as a minor haplotype in surveys of Cherokee and other Southeastern Indians (Schurr, Bolnick), although its presence was attributed to "admixture." It has also reported in Mexican Indians (Green). U2 was the mitochondrial signature of a link between archaic Europeans and modern-day Native Americans discovered in the 24,000 year-old Ma'lta skeleton whose DNA was recently sequenced from near Lake Baikal (Raghavan et al. 2014).

Vivian A. Santos-Montanez (14), a Hebrew School teacher in DeLand, Fla., took a combination of Jewish and Native American DNA tests for herself and several family members. Her mitochondrial mutation set produced only one exact match in the world: Mercedes Rivera-Rivera, born about 1915 in Utuado, Puerto Rico. Based on family traditions, Santos believes her maternal line could have come from Cherokees sold into slavery during the Spanish colonial period who joined Taino Indians living in the remote mountainous region of her native Puerto Rico.

 

U5, U5a and U5b samples include 5 participants from Phase II and 6 from Phase I, totaling 11 for the project, the bulk of all U's. U5 is of interest because of its important role in the peopling of Europe (Malyarchuk et al 2010). It is the oldest mtDNA lineage in Europe which is human, with an estimated age estimated at 50,000 years ago, greatly predating the expansion of agriculture. In the new three-fold scheme of European ancestry, U5 is the largest contributor to the component known as WHG or Western European Hunter Gatherers (Lazaridis et al. 2014). U5 is also found in significant levels, however, in the Middle East, Northern Africa and Central Asia.

Elizabeth DeLand (67), who tested her mother Juanita L. Sims, a U5a1, had an unreported set of mutations in the Cambridge Concordance, but matched five persons in Mitosearch, all three different haplogroup assignments, U5 (Ireland), U5a1* (Alabama, Ireland) and Unknown (Ireland). DeLand reported that her grandmother and great-grandmother spoke Cherokee. The mother of Pamela Bowman, Juanita Wilson (65), was another U5a1, with no exact matches on both sectors.  Her rare/unique 16526A was reported in a single case by Van Oven and has been discussed sporadically on Internet boards. Bowman is a member of the CBC.  She shares her rare SNP with William Zachary Dylan Sizemore (179989), who traces his line to Lucinda Lusk, born January 31, 1823. The SNP also appears in the U5a1a* mutations of Dr. Bruce Dean (Phase I, no. 19), whose genealogy goes back to Jane Rose, a member of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, and who matched Marie Eastman, born 1901, Indian Territory.

Turning now to U2, we have an interesting U2e haplotype in Carol Myers Rymes, a genealogist, Melungeon descendant (her uncle is a Sizemore) and CBC member who has pursued her mitochondrial line for several years. In Mitosearch, her single match was a descendant claiming descent from Bridget Garrity, born about 1816 in Ireland. Rymes also matched her own record in CBC data, plus Brian Voncannon, a Williams descendant. Rymes has been active in restoring the Occoquan Burying Ground in Prince William County, Va., and wrote a book on the descendants of Samuel Rymes. There were six U2e's in Phase I.

With Charlotte Walker (36), U3, we have an exotic haplotype that seems to match only Native American lines. U3 is a minor haplogroup centered around the Black Sea, with a strong presence today in the northeastern part (Colchis, Scythia, Transcaucasus, the Steppes). It could be related to ancient Indo-Europeans. There were two exact matches in Mitosearch, one from Alvina (or Elwina), born about 1820 in South Carolina and thought to be Native American, and another from Sarah Elizabeth Snyder, born 1828, origin unknown. The information from all three congeners is incomplete and uncertain. And as textual transmission experts say, "One witness, no witness." Participant 36 is the only instance of U3 to date. There are two examples in CBC data.

K (formerly H8) is an important Jewish haplogroup, and it has a small, but significant presence across all datasets. There were 2 (3.0%) in Phase I and 4 (nos. 13, 29, 34, 53, 7.7%) in Phase II. The CBC data shows 11 K's (8.1%). Haplogroup K is represented by 17 samples in a grand total of 252 participants (6.7%), a lower incidence compared both to European populations (10%) and Ashkenazi Jews (32-50%).

Three of our K's (Ashley Nielsen 29, Earl Dulaney 34, Ann Pyle 53) had such rare haplotypes, all with unique, partly overlapping mutations, that no exact matches could be found in the databases. It was felt that this specificity spoke for types that died out and were no longer reported in the rest of the world but survived in an exotic North American population, where they had been implanted in the remote past. By comparison, the chances of a large number of unmatched modern types dating to European admixture in the Colonial window of history were estimated to be slim. 

To be continued...
 

Comments

Diana McDargh commented on 12-Oct-2014 12:36 PM

This is all fascinating. I just wish I could figure out my own native American. Census lists show my great grandmother as being white. Birth records aren't available as they were just beginning to be kept in some of the Ky. counties. I have an African American proved on one paternal side and native American proved on the maternal side, through DNA. I just can't line it up according to the records.


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More Anomalous Mitochondrial Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Two

Sunday, October 05, 2014

 

Peramelia Vaughn was born September 22, 1901, in Coffee County, Tennessee. She was the maternal grandmother of Cherokee DNA Project Phase II participant Sharon Rebecca Chatterton of Lady Lake, Florida. Chatterton is one of the H's in the project.

This installment in the series describes the sample and summarizes haplogroup findings.

Procedure and Methodology

The purpose of the Cherokee DNA Project is to sample and investigate the genetic heritage of persons who may be of Cherokee descent and establish a reference collection of their DNA results and genealogies. Enrollment in Phase II began in October 2009 following the release of Phase I results in the blog post "Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee" (August 31, 2009). Data were published in Yates (2012) pp. 161-62.

As in Phase I, a notice of the search for volunteers was publicly displayed on the company's website. Holli Starnes has acted as administrator throughout. All candidates signed up when they purchased either a mitochondrial DNA HVS1+2 ancestry test or a mitochondrial "report only" based on previous testing. After receiving fulfillment of their personal order, they were requested to execute and mail back a standard informed consent form. Participation was at no extra cost. Open enrollment via the website lasted until August 31, 2014, at which time 67 candidates were verified and accepted into the final sample. All had learned in their personal report that they probably had direct female descent through mitochondrial DNA from a Native American woman.

The sample selected for Phase II is composed of 39 female (58%) and 28 male (42%) subjects. Two husband-wife couples enrolled. Sometimes the subject's test was ordered by a family member, but no participants knew they were closely related a priori. Ages varied from 30 to 90. Participants mostly lived in the United States and Canada, where they were residents of scattered locations, from New Hampshire and Florida to California, Texas and Hawaii. One joined from as far away as New Zealand. No single state (such as Oklahoma or Tennessee) stood out in the demography.

Of the 67 subjects, eleven of them (16%) tested with other companies first, including Family Tree DNA, Ancestry.com and DNA Diagnostics Center. About half (47%) got first-time test results from DNA Consultants' service lab, Genex Diagnostics of Vancouver, British Columbia, and about one-third tested with Sorenson Genomics of Salt Lake City, Utah. Two participants did not want to reveal the identity of their lab. Enrollment was fairly evenly distributed over five years. The largest number of tests (27) was taken in 2010, at the beginning of the study.

The numbers above are provided to emphasize that though the study is purposive in nature, its scope has proved random with regard to geographical location, date, age, sex and other factors. The sample size (n=67) is similar to that of Phase I (n=52). There are no known biases in the sample. No public or private funding was sought or obtained, no volunteer was paid, and no commercial interests were involved.

Motives, Customer Profiles and Report Fulfillment

Typical in respect to approach, background, motives and process was Sharon Benning of Roseburg, Oregon. "My grandmother and her family always said we were Cherokee and I know that they were afraid of looking too brown and would always stay out of the sun," wrote Benning in a customer inquiry on April 4, 2010. "They didn't want to be connected to Native Americans at all. I feel like I have missed part of my heritage and would like to know if this story is true." After purchasing a Native American DNA Test on April 5, she received and returned her sample collection kit. Sorenson Genomics of Salt Lake City, our service lab at the time, released her results to us in a "Certificate of Mitochondrial DNA Analysis," dated April 29, 2010. Staff then fulfilled her Native American DNA Report, which was signed by Donald N. Yates, Ph.D., Principal Investigator, on June 16, 2010.

In it, the customer was informed of hypervariable region sector 1 and 2 or control region mutations, matched to other instances of her haplotype and provided with an evaluation of its origin, history and distribution. Standard databases consulted were the Cambridge Mitochondrial DNA Concordance (version 2.0, 1998), Richards et al. (2000), mtDNA Population Database, incorporating "sequence data from the scientific literature and the GenBank and European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) genetic databases (Monson et al. 2002, also known as Swygdam and FBI) and Mitosearch, a free online research tool from Family Tree DNA, Houston, Texas.  

The basis for all testing and comparisons was the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence of the Human Mitochondrial DNA, described in Anderson et al. (1981) and Andrews et al. (1999) 

Haplogroup H is not one of the six classic Native American female lineages A, B, C, E, and X, although it has been identified in the Cherokee, where it is usually ascribed to admixture with Europeans (Schurr). Haplogroups T, J, K and U have also been found in Southeastern tribes (data on file, Bolnick). The subject’s particular haplotype, with one exception, only matches descendants of women born in North America. It is probable, although still ambiguous, then, that it is Native American or indigenous to North America. In conjunction with a family tradition that the maternal line was Native American, it should be considered Native American. The subject is encouraged to join Phase II of our Cherokee DNA Studies.

Benning volunteered for Phase II and became participant No. 43. Pending the completion of the project, she was issued a certificate that specified "Female Lineage:  H, Prob. Native American."

Typical of participants who submitted previous mitochondrial results for evaluation and possible inclusion, in other words who tested with another lab, was Juanita Sims. Her niece, Elizabeth DeLand, contacted Dr. Yates in July of 2014 and succeeded in enrolling her aunt as participant No. 67—one of the last to be accepted in Phase II. "Aunt Juanita originally had the test done because her grandmother and great-grandmother spoke Cherokee and she is trying to find it in her DNA," wrote DeLand. "She is U5 haplogroup and was told it was not Native American." Sims became one of six U5's in the second phase, joining six others in Phase I. Additionally, 9 of 135 in the old Family Tree DNA Cherokee Project were U5's. Sims' form of U5 exhibited two unmatched single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 16291T and 272G, although it loosely matched four other U5's in the study.

Juanita Sims was originally tested by Family Tree DNA and thus received no certificate from DNA Consultants, as hers was a "report only." Family Tree DNA did not certify her mitochondrial line as Native American but as Eurasian. Under its rules at the time, "Native American mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C, D and X," tout court. The Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band adopt similar definitions for what they consider "true" American Indian DNA types. Our study made no presumptions about the ethnicity or affiliation of haplogroups.

Note on CBC Project

In addition to cross-references within the project, all participants were compared to 135 mitochondrial records from the Cherokee DNA project begun in 2002 under the late Chief Joe White of the Central Band of Cherokee of Lawrenceburg, Tennessee. The project met with a large response and remained active until 2011 under administrators Pamela Sexton, June Hurd, Marcy Palmer and Holli Starnes. It was closed for unknown reasons in 2011. Members' records and administrators' names were all peremptorily removed. Its replacement project at Family Tree DNA shows 51 records, has the same name and lists Roberta Estes as administrator, but is not to be confused with the original project. Fortunately, the CBC generously gave access and granted permission to DNA Consultants to make a study of this valuable collection before it was taken offline.

Summary of Phase II Results

Haplogroup Distribution

To tabulate haplogroup assignments from Phase II, 57 individuals (85%) proved to have anomalous haplogroups and 10 (15%) A-D or X. These proportions are quite consistent with Phase I. In the project to date overall (n=119) there have been 101 anomalous types (85%) and 18 (15%) A-D or X. The CBC mitochondrial data (n=135) show 97% anomalous (H, I, J, K, L, T, U, W, no N or V) versus 3% non-anomalous (C, X, no A, B or D).

In Phase II as in Phase I, the largest haplogroup represented was T. This was the haplogroup of 13 individuals, or 19.4%, in Phase II (n=67). In Phase I (n=52), there were 14 T's (26.9%). Project-wide (n=119), the T's number 27 and account for 22.7% of participants.

Haplogroup U made the second highest appearance. Phase II had 10 individuals (14.9%). There were rather more U's (13, or 25.0%) in Phase I, bringing the total for both phases to date to 23, or 19.3%.

H was represented by 11 subjects in Phase II (16.4%) and 4 (7.7%) in Phase II. The total number of H's in the project is 15 (12.6%). In the CBC data, H is the largest haplogroup, accounting for 40.0% of individuals. The top three haplogroups (T, U and H) thus covered about half of participants across the two phases of the project.

Second tier anomalous types in Phase II were J (6, or 9.0%), L (6, or 9.0%) and K (4, or 6%). These moderately well represented haplogroups (J, K, L) accounted for about 21.8% of all participants and about 25% of anomalous types. The leading haplogroups T, U and H made up an average 45% of the anomalous samples.

At the bottom frequencies, anomalous haplogroups with 2 or fewer individuals were I (3.0%), W (3.0%), N (1.5%) and V (1.5%). These minor types accounted for 7.6% of the anomalous results in Phase I. They did not appear in Phase I. Project-wide, they represent 5% of results, and combining with CBC, which had 1 I and 2 W's, the minor anomalous types amount to 3.5% of haplogroup assignments. In addition, there have been four unknown haplogroups, all in Phase I, totaling 1.6% of the greater sample (n=254).

Fig. 1 Haplogroup Distribution Phase II

Haplogroup

n=

freq.

A-D, X

11

.164

H

11

.164

I

2

.030

J

6

.090

K

4

.060

L

6

.090

N

1

.015

T

13

.194

U

10

.149

V

1

.015

W

2

.030

 

67

100%

Unique Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

In Phase II, comparisons in all readily available worldwide databases (chiefly the Cambridge Mitochondrial DNA Concordance, Monson et al. and Mitosearch) produced 55 rare, unreported or unique SNPs on HVR1 and HVR2. A list of these mitochondrial DNA mutations of interest along with the haplogroups in which they occurred is provided in Fig. 2. A number of these yield matches within the project, or by comparison with CBC tested individuals, but there remain many individuals with such rare mutations that they do not match anyone in the world or at best only partially match others in the three samples (n=254).

The results of our analysis seem to implicate a specific, coherent and diverse gene pool of ancient structure and origin among present-day Cherokee descendants. Such a characterization is supported by the distribution of female haplotypes; invariable pattern of matches leading to mitochondrial linkage in North America, often to persons identified as Native American, and sometimes even as Cherokee; occurrence of very old mutations; and presence of unique SNPs that match with others in the sample, if with anyone.

The role of admixture depends on what population one  "privileges." From the perspective of entrenched models and theories of genetics, the finding of H or any of the other anomalous haplogroups in the Cherokee, no matter how many or in what proportions, should naturally be explained as the result of post-1492 European intermarriage or "random mating" with Native Americans. In the scheme "A-D and sometimes X," the presence of T, U, J or any other anomalous type in the Cherokee must be attributed to recent admixture.

Fig. 2. Unique and Rare SNPs

np

Haplogroup

Phase II

Phase I

16086C

C, L

20, 51

16124C

H, L

52

16129C

U

55

11, 12, 13, 14, 16

16147A

N

2

16153A

T

22

34

16154C

N

2

16163G

T, L

5, 6, 16

24, 25, 26, 32, 50

16166C

W

30

16182C

U, T, B

23, 56, 58

2, 11, 16, 51, 52

16183C

U, T, B

23, 56, 58

2, 11, 16, 51, 52

16187T

H, K, L, T

34

31

16188G

H, L

45

16188T

T

21, 59

16189D

T, L

51

24, 25, 26, 32, 36, 50

16192.1T

L

51

16193.1C

U, H, T

14, 42, 44

6, 41

16193.2C

U, H, T

14, 42, 44

6, 41

16209C

L, A, J

47, 61

16218T

T

37

16222T

J

8, 63

16231C

J, K

35

17

16248T

N

2

16257T

T, H

21, 32, 59

16258G

T, U

40

16261T

J

8, 63, unknown

37

16265R

L

52

16295T

L

47

16309A

U, L

36, 64

21

16316G

L, H

51

16324C

T

1

50

16327T

L

50

16343G

A, H, U

33, 36

21

16355T

N, L

2, 51

16357C

H

43

16391A

U, B, I

4, 46, 48, 54, 60

18

16482G

H

24

16526A

U

65

143A

C, L

20

149.1C

L

50

152D

J, L, Unknown

35, 52

33

185A

J, U, Unknown

3, 32, 41

4, 8, 15, 16, 36, 45

189G

H, W, L, J

12, 30, 31, 47, 63

43

194T

D, H, W

25, 30, 31, 62

199C

N, I, L, U

2, 48, 51, 52, 54

20

207A

J, W, L

8, 30, 31, 54

214R

H

24

234R

J

32

236C

I, T, L

48

41

242T

J

8

244G

L

51

249D

C

20, 66

250C

I

48, 54

290D

C

20, 66

291D

C

20, 66

310.1T

J, K

35, 53

We have seen, however, that cracks and whole chasms have been developing in the formerly tidy, tied-up-with-ribbons "peopling of the Americas" hypothesis. Even if anomalous population components are ascribed to admixture, though, we still want to determine what time or times in the past, and from what source or sources, did that admixture enter into the picture. The condition that mitochondrial-line admixture is female-mediated, not male-mediated or autosomal, demands that we have a source population with a great number of women. Moreover, the female genetic founders must approximate the distribution, age and diversity of haplogroups in the study population (Cherokee descendants in the strict female line).

Gene flow into Native American populations historically has been almost exclusively the result of privileged European men taking lesser status American Indian female partners. Very few European women in colonial times bore the babies of Native American men. In the conquest of North America, Indian male lines were preferentially reduced and extinguished, while Indian women often became the prizes of war or simply an inevitable choice in a world overflowing with single males. If Native American women had children with European men, their daughters and maternal granddaughters perpetuated Native American mitochondrial DNA.

It bears repeating that only women can pass down trans-generational mitochondrial markers. The corollary is also true:  men cannot be responsible for mitochondrial ancestry. All present-day mitochondrial haplotypes must trace back to a woman, usually to a mother who had at least two daughters.

Can our admixture be explained as coming from other time frames and possibly non-European origins? If it is ancient rather than recent, does it even make sense to regard it as admixture? These are the questions we will address in the next section of our report. 


Sharon R. Chatterton (nee Toms). 

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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part One

Thursday, October 02, 2014

By Donald N. Yates

Because of its length, our long-awaited report on Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Project is being published in installments. Part I deals with the background of American Indian haplogroup analysis and the "peopling of the Americas" hypothesis that has prevailed in genetics since 1993. Part Two will describe our procedure and methodology. 



Abstract.
A purposive sample of individuals who took a mitochondrial DNA test to determine female lineage (n=67) was created from participants in DNA Consultants' Cherokee DNA Project Phase II. Almost all beforehand claimed matrilineal descent from a Native American woman, usually believed to be Cherokee, and often named in genealogy research undertaken by the customer. The majority of subjects revealed "anomalous" haplotypes not previously classified as American Indian. Many matched others in Phase I. Several individuals overcame the barrier of a sealed adoption to find biological relationships, often to other participants. As in Phase I, a Middle Eastern type, haplogroup T, emerged as the most common lineage (19.4% in Phase II, 22.7% overall in the project), followed by H, U and J, all Eurasian types. Sub-Saharan African haplogroup L (9%) was prominent as a minor category. Old Europe haplogroups I, N, V and W occurred in small amounts and should be considered strikingly new, unreported signals of authentic Cherokee ancestry.

 

Background

Ever since the pioneering work of Douglas C. Wallace, Rebecca L. Cann and others on the use of human mitochondrial DNA as a marker for genetic ancestry and disease, scientists have insisted on a very limited and rigid number of ancient Asian female founders for present-day American Indian populations. In 1993, Satoshi Horai of the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan was the lead author in a study with the agenda-setting title, "Peopling of the Americas, Founded by Four Major Lineages of Mitochondrial DNA." That same year, Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia coined the term haplogroup in a publication in the American Journal of Human Genetics in which he and his co-authors postulated but four lineages, A, B, C and D to account for mitochondrial ancestries in their sample. Also in 1993, Anne C. Stone (Arizona State University) and Mark Stoneking (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) confirmed the four haplogroups in a 1300 C.E. burial ground in central Illinois, the Norris Farms site. The year 1993 was truly an annus mirabilis in American Indian genetics. It remained only for the minor haplogroup X to be added to the original four lineages (Brown et al. 1998, Malhi and Smith 2002; Smith et al. 1999).

In the ensuing twenty years, academic studies, textbooks, the popular media and governmental policies fell into lockstep about the "peopling of the Americas." Despite a number of voices being raised in criticism (Jones; Guthrie; Jett), the model restricting American Indian ancestry to mitochondrial lineages A, B, C, D and X has remained intact. When direct-to-the-consumer DNA testing became available in 2000, commercial companies hopped on the abecedarian bandwagon. To paraphrase Henry Ford, you could have an Indian DNA test say anything you wanted as long as it was A, B, C, D and sometimes X. But were these haplogroup rules possibly equivocal and not conclusively decidable anyway?

Etched in stone along with the five classic Native American mitochondrial haplogroups has emerged a belief that all American Indians can be traced to a single entry from Siberia roughly 10,000 years ago across the Bering Strait, supposed at that time to have formed a land bridge. This prevailing notion was summarized and defended by Kemp and Schurr (2010). According to University of Florida doctoral dissertation writer Joseph Andrew Park Wilson, "Today it is rare to find a molecular anthropologist who favors more than two distinct migration events, and a majority of researchers are enamored with the single-origin hypothesis, which postulates just one founding group ancestral to all Native Americans." Wilson cites the following studies in support of this observation:  Bonatto and Salzano 1997; Fagundes et al. 2008; Goebel et al. 2008; Kolman et al. 1996; Merriwether et al. 1995; Mulligan et al. 2004; Rubicz et al. 2002; Stone and Stoneking 1998; Tamm et al. 2007; Tarazona-Santos and Santos 2002; Zegura et al. 2004 (p. 102).

Band-aids on the Battleship
This "A-D" thesis continues to stand with minor alterations. Perego et al. (2009) proposed on the basis of phylogeographic analysis of 69 mitochondrial types a  "simultaneous but independent Asian source populations for early American colonists." But this modification of the theory involving "two roads taken" still kept within the A-D canon and maintained the primacy of the Bering land bridge (aided in a minor way by a seaborne route from Asia using the "kelp road").

After extensive examination of the subject Wilson concludes that the five mtDNA haplogroups actually have complex, multilayered histories. Setting aside the initial colonization of the Americas with its foundational genetic imprint, a host of unsolved questions about the remainder of the pre-Columbian period persist as problematic, including the number, timing, impact, duration, direction and scale of movements between the Old World and New World. Moreover, the genetic story represents only one of the pieces of the puzzle; other evidence to be harmonized into a coherent "archeogenetic narrative" are languages and material culture (pp. 141-42).

Torroni and Wallace (then at Emory and La Sapienza in Rome, respectively) were apparently the first to use the term "anomalous" of mitochondrial types. However, in their important letter to the editor of the American Journal of Human Genetics in May 1995, they applied it rather narrowly to "a heterogeneous set of mtDNAs due either to recent genetic admixture or to new mutations that have abolished a preexisting primary marker," in other words to non-conforming types within the A-D paradigm.

Utterly "foreign" anomalies only came within the sights of geneticists in 2013, when a devastating shockwave hit the archeological establishment. At the epicenter was Danish researcher Eske Willerslev, who reported on two 24,000-year-old Siberian skeletons at the "First Americans Archeology" conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  The fullest sequencing of ancient human DNA to date suggested that the people who lived near Lake Baikal at the dawn of human civilizations, and who later developed into the Native Americans of the New World, came more proximately from a westernly direction in Europe, not from Asia. Moreover, the mitochondrial haplogroup of the so-called Mal'ta boy the Danish team sequenced was U, a "non-Indian" type (M. Raghavan et al. 2014). The term anomalous now extended to entire haplogroups that did not fit the mold.

On the face of it, no haplotyping study can distinguish between deep ancestry and more recent admixture as the cause of unusual variations in DNA. Whereas tools like "time to coalescence," bootstrapping and phylogenetic trees can be used to compare types and estimate genetic distance, no logarithm can tell the geneticist where any given haplotype may have arisen and become characteristic. Projections of the source, spread, mutation and survival of uni-parental haplotypes can be deceptive, especially when they telescope tens of thousands and sometimes hundreds of thousands of years.

Navajo Puzzles
To consider an apposite question from Navajo research, we might ask when did certain Asian genes in the modern-day Diné matching 4000-year-old DNA from Siberia and the Tarim Basin travel to the Americas? It could have been 20,000 years ago or it could have been in the 16th century. The "genetic signature" could have arrived by gradual "star-like" diffusion or through one or more discontinuous movements, some possibly seaborne, some repetitive, some marked by diversity of types, some non-diverse, some minor, some major, some conceivably separated from each other by centuries or millennia. Similar problems beset any modeling of tribally-specific genetic scenarios. As the Jones white paper pointed out long ago, geneticists have a tendency to take the long view and telescope genetic incidents. They often rely solely on statistical modeling applying classical evolutionary components like random mating and natural selection and do not take concerted account of histories, archeology, cultural baggage like myth and religion, and family or clan genealogies. 

So far, autosomal DNA analysis has not assumed a large role in elucidating haplogroup history and the subject of admixture. The Centre for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen's Natural History Museum of Denmark has led the way with a new "dual ancestry" model augmenting the A-D thesis. The current issue of Archaeology contains the heretical suggestion that "the earliest travelers to the New World made their way more than 20,000 years ago from what is now the west coast of France and northern Spain" (Swaminathan, p. 25), but this seems to be just another shot in the dark. A quite recent autosomal study of European DNA headed by Harvard's David Reich identified three ancestral populations on the basis of ancient DNA, one of which is Willerslev's "ancient North Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians," called ANE (Lazaridis et al. 2014). Belonging to haplogroup U, and sharing some alleles with 8,000-year-old Scandinavian hunter-gatherers, ANE is thus an ancient link between Europeans and Native Americans, one quite separate incidentally from Turkic Chuvash and N-dominated Saami, both of which "are more related to east Asians than can be explained by ANE admixture" (p. 412). Haplogroup U has thus been established as an ancient founding haplogroup in Native American populations, dating back 24,000 years ago to the same time period as the A-D canon.

It is to be hoped that genetics will embark on a fundamental new beginning for the study of American Indian haplotypes rather than continue to repair outworn theories. Promisingly for Cherokee research, Willerslev's team in Denmark has included several participants in the present project as part of a larger study. The Danish initiative has sampled the 35,000 members of the Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama:  Dr. Joel E. Harris, Sr. maintains a communication page.


Photo above:  Participant #56, Karen Freeman Worstell, a risk management professional in Gig Harbor, Washington. Worstell tested as having a very rare T* that matched Cherokees on official rolls, even though T is universally considered a non-Indian type. She says, "I was always told we were Cherokee by my mother." Her T haplotype exactly matched two participants in Phase I of the DNA Cherokee Project, both relatives of Patrick Pynes, a professor of indigenous studies in Arizona. Pynes has traced the line to Mildred Gentry (1792-1852) and Nancy Gentry (b. 1801), daughters of the wife of Tyree Gentry, sometimes named as Delilah.  

 
Karen Worstell's grandmother Odessa Shields Cox (shown with her husband William M. Cox and Karen's mother Ethel about 1922) was born about 1904 in Indian Territory. "As for my family's oral history," says Worstell, "there was tremendous secrecy about anything related to my Indian background. My grandfather used to call me 'squaw,' which would infuriate my mother. My mother cut off all connection with her own mother sometime before I was born. My grandmother has strikingly Indian features and I do wonder if perhaps she was an adopted Indian child." 

Comments

Nae Boots commented on 03-Oct-2014 10:33 PM

at least they can't call my grandma a liar anymore. and that is good enough for now.


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Jesse Montes: Where Do I Come From

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

I grew up in the Southwest in Richmond, California. My father was from Guayama, Puerto Rico, and my mother was from Maui, Hawaii. My paternal great grandparents kept a diary and worked in the sugarcane, tobacco, and coffee fields and told stories of the Taino Indians from the island of Boriken near Puerto Rico.  My mother’s side migrated to Hawaii from Spain and Puerto Rico to work in the pineapple and sugar cane fields. My mom and relatives were in Pearl Harbor and some served in WWII.

My mom's maternal grandmother was born near Ponce, Puerto Rico. 

I knew that I had Spanish and heard there might be some Native American from my grandparents, but I did not know for sure. I always had a gut feeling I was Native American, but I did not know how to confirm this until I took the DNA Fingerprint Plus and your Native American DNA test. My Dad talked about having some Taino Indian, and I thought maybe I had a trace. I did not know. I was always very curious about my ancestry.

It was a big surprise to me what the tests showed! I have a Spanish name, but the Native American DNA test showed that I have Native American on both sides and have a match to Taino and possibly Cherokee. My Native American haplogroup, C1, is relatively rare and corresponds to Taino lineage.  I am assuming the Taino is on my Dad’s side and the Cherokee is on my mom’s side. The latter was especially surprising since I am from the Southwest. I have not done any other DNA testing, but my sister did. She did a DNA test from another company and was told said she had Cherokee which we thought odd, but this is just more confirmation. My DNA Fingerprint Plus report said the Spanish and French enslaved and resettled many Native Americans to the highlands of Puerto Rico, so I imagine that is where I got Cherokee ancestry. Also, the DNA Fingerprint Plus showed I have top matches to Native American populations in my world and megapopulations. It was a big surprise to discover I have so much Native American. Oh, and I discovered I also have some Jewish in my ancestry which was quite a surprise.

I am hoping to now be able to connect with some of my ancestors online on my mom’s side to discover even more from the Native American DNA test and to join the Dr. Yates’ Cherokee Project with DNA Consultants. Dr. Yates believes my mother’s line is Cherokee. I am very excited about that. You guys have my full support. I finally know who I am! This has helped me very much. It isn’t that it was just useful to me. This is a useful tool that would help everyone find out who they are. God bless you and what you are doing. You are a dynamic duo and have given me a golden key. I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American, and it was such a relief to find out I have a strong line of it from my mother. I am usually a very quiet person, but I am so excited about this that I want to be recognized. This is me! 

52-year-old Cherokee DNA Project Phase II Participant No. 20, Jesse Montes of Richmond, Calif., was interviewed by Teresa Panther-Yates, Vice President of Communications, August 6, 2014.



Comments

Luis Alberto commented on 27-Sep-2014 11:06 AM

Mr. Montes. I am glad of your findings. one of my family lines is Montes also. And, from Mayaguez, PR

The quest for blood lines is been here forever, Even before DNA was a fact of life.

The main thing in all these findings is that you are a perfect example of what you and all of us are.

Not only a part but as a whole we are member of the Human Race. Rejoice!
A single grain of sand that we contribute to rebuild our decadent society will be of great help, Nothing else, Nothing more. my fellowman.

Godspeed...


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Nobody Can Tell Me Who I Am

Friday, September 19, 2014

Postings from the Edge

By Donald N. Yates

They called her Mother Qualla—a stately, bluish-gray skinned schoolteacher in New York with angular features, thin lips and quick, intelligent eyes. Brian Wilkes and I drove her to her motel room at a meeting of the Southwestern Cherokee Confederacy in Albany, Georgia.

That was twenty years ago but I shall never forget Mother Qualla's take on Indian recognition. She listened to our stories, looked at us sternly and said, "No one can tell me WHO I AM!"

Such words could well serve as the mantra of more than a hundred dedicated genealogy seekers in DNA Consultants' Cherokee DNA Project who are proving the geneticists wrong. Participants in Phase II received a thank-you email from the company September 20 that provided many with the confirmation they had long sought in vain from previous testing.

"I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American," said San Pablo, Calif. resident Jesse Montes, a fortyish Latino who resembles nothing so much as Sir Joshua Reynolds' 1762 portrait of Ostenaco. "It was a big surprise and relief to discover I am Indian in both my father's male and my mom's female line, just as family stories said we were." His mitochondrial sample turned out to be haplogroup C, the type of Cherokee Beloved Woman Nancy Ward and a whole line of chiefs from the Wolf Clan, including Dragging Canoe.

Although none of the participants previously knew each other, many found out they were related as descendants of the same Cherokee ancestor and evidently belonged to the same clan. Indeed, several were adoptees totally uninformed about their ancestry before joining the project.

Juanita Sims was one of the frustrated clients of previous testing, which can often be cut-and-dry, case-closed on the matter of who is Indian. Said niece Elizabeth DeLand, "She originally had the test done because her grandmother and great-grandmother spoke Cherokee and she is trying to find it in her DNA." Sims proved to have a rare form of U5a1 DNA, fully matching a woman born in Walker County, Alabama, in 1828. DeLand enrolled her aunt as Participant #67 in the study, one of the last to be accepted.

Under the rules of Family Tree DNA's Cherokee DNA Project, "Native American mtDNA Haplogroups are A, B, C, D and X," and any others are ineligible. The Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band adopt similar restrictions for what they consider "true" American Indian DNA types.

Of the 67 participants, eleven of them (16%) tested with other companies first, including Family Tree DNA, Ancestry.com and DNA Diagnostics Center. On the other hand, about half (47%) got first-time test results from DNA Consultants' service lab, Genex Diagnostics of Vancouver, British Columbia. About a third tested with Sorenson Genomics of Salt Lake City, Utah, a source used by the company in the first two years of the phase's existence. Two participants did not want to reveal the identity of their lab.

Despite not having to pay for benefits of being included in the study, all candidates had to purchase either a Native American Test or Report Only analysis. As a measure of their passion to find answers, they collectively spent an estimated $50,000 between one company or other, according to Holli Starnes, project administrator and assistant principal investigator.

In addition to cross-comparisons within the project, all participants will be now compared to 135 mitochondrial records from the Cherokee DNA project assembled in 2002-2011 under the aegis of the late Chief Joe White and longtime administrator Pamela Sexton of the Central Band of Cherokee.

According to Jan Ravenspirit Franz, webmaster for the CBC, this project was closed and reorganized by its sponsor Family Tree DNA, where it currently lists 51 members, but the wishes of the original participants are being respected and all data has been maintained for continuing analysis.

In a preliminary tabulation, 16% of participants proved to have direct female descent in "standard" American Indian haplogroups A, B, C, D and X. The majority (84%) had what are commonly recognized as "non-Indian" haplogroups.

With surnames like Allen, Harris and Wilson (four of these), and Little Bear, Thundereagle and Buitenhuis, they joined from Tennessee, Washington State, Oklahoma, Texas and Connecticut. Some verified ancestors they knew about from the paper trail; others met new figures on the trail blazed by modern genetics. One matched Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans; another, Cherokee Beloved Woman Nancy Ward (haplogroup C).

"My grandmother and her family always said we were Cherokee and I know that they were afraid of looking too brown and would always stay out of the sun," wrote one participant. "They didn't want to be connected to Native Americans at all. I feel like I have missed part of my heritage and would like to know if this story is true."

She happened to have haplogroup H, a controversial type for Indian ancestry, but matched three possible Cherokee descendants and no one else.

Another, who happened to bear the African haplogroup L3, matched several ancestors claimed by others in the records and reported to be Cherokee. A similar L3 turned up in a California man and was reported in A Te Anu, a Muscogee Creek woman.

One man, an adoptee, managed to get his adoption papers opened on the strength of his DNA testing. His mitochondrial DNA was a rare form of T* that coincidentally matched that of others in the project, and no one else in the world.

As in Phase I, rare T haplotypes accounted for about one-fifth of participants and was the leading anomalous Cherokee type. H and U, as well as K and J were also prominent. New additions came in the form of W (2), N (1), L (6), I (2) and V (1).

Two participants (B and U) had family stories they were Jewish.

Surnames of Individuals Tested

Afshari Allen Alvarez Anonymous Barrios Benjamin Benning Brill Buitenhuis Carpenter Carter (2) Cazee Chatterton Clark Dulaney England Epstein Espinoza Francisco (2) Franz (2) Guillermo Gurule Harris Haynes James Keating Kellam Kubik Lambert Little Bear Melton Montes Murphy Nagy Nielsen Perez Ponder Poole Pyle Rahamim Redding Rogalla Rymes Santos-Montanez Sexton Shipman Shippley Sims Sponenburgh Stritzel Stults Swinney Thundereagle Van Poperin Walker (2) Ward Williams Wilson (4) Worstell Young.

Comments

James E. Walker commented on 23-Sep-2014 03:54 PM

Thanx guys for all your Great work,i can see this is going to be good reading.James


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One Giant Leap for Kennewick Man

Monday, August 25, 2014

The most important human skeleton found in North America has finally been given a reprieve from legal obstacles to be studied and the resulting information published. In an article by Douglas Preston in Smithsonian Magazine titled "The Kennewick Man Finally Freed to Share His Secrets," the amazing story of the 9,000 year-old skeleton—and the enormous lengths to which the government and tribal protesters went to block it—is told for the first time.

And what a story it is, whether you consider the astounding new evidence it provides for a completely new version of the peopling of the Americas or the shocking tale of government and Native American obstruction. In both narratives, Douglas Owsley a physical anthropologist at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, is the hero. He became the key plaintiff in a decades-long legal battle that cost taxpayers "at a bare minimum . . . $5 million." And he is the lead editor in the long-awaited scientific monograph from Texas A&M University Press appearing next month, Kennewick Man:  The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton.

Kennewick Man appears to have resembled an Ainu or Mauri fisherman, stocky, bearded, light-skinned, belonging to an ancient sea-faring race from Southeast Asia that first colonized the Americas about 15,000 year ago. His story, replete with details on how he lived and died, turns the traditional account of American prehistory on its ear. The people we call Native Americans did not come until later, much later. "An ancient population of seafarers ... were America's original settlers," writes Preston.

Tooth and Nail

This is not an absolute get-out-of-jail-free card for Kennewick Man, however. The defenders in the suit have fought and continue to fight letting the scientists study the skeleton's teeth and DNA. And Native American tribes like the Umatilla still cling to their "deeply held religious beliefs," which would demand that the skeleton be reburied in a secret location according to the Native American Graves and Repatriation Act and completely lost to science. 

No one will ever know the exact circumstances of Kennewick Man's burial 9,000 years ago in what is now southeast Washington State because the government finessed this issue several years ago. When the scientists asked for permission to examine the site where Kennewick Man was found, even as Congress was readying a bill that would require the site's preservation, the Corps of Army Engineers dumped "a million pounds of rock and fill over the area for erosion control, ending any chance of research." 

The government was found to have engaged in many other acts of blatant bad faith. A judge in 2004, John Jelderks, awarded attorney's fees of $2,379,000 to [Owsley's lawyer Alan] Schneider and his team."

The keepers of Kennewick Man still refuse to let the scientists analyze the spearpoint that was buried in the skeleton's hip.

Perhaps if scientists declared that a search for truth was part of their "deeply held religious beliefs" they might make better headway . . . . 
 

If you like ancient seafaring people in the Americas, you might enjoy the following titles:



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Destination Europe

Monday, August 18, 2014


European Populations in the DNA Fingerprint Ancestry Test

In the days before standardization of railway gauges, passengers were sometimes obliged to get out of the railcar when the tracks reached a border and climb aboard a waiting train on the next set of rails, which were broader or narrower in design.

An analogy is being able to fly to certain destinations only with a connecting flight. Unfortunately, because the U.S. and Europe follow different standards for reporting DNA profiles, the same situation applies in ancestry testing.

All DNA Consultants' results are based on published studies. The two main forensic conventions are those of the FBI (CoDIS) and Europe (ENFSI). The two standards are as different as electricity at 120 volts (U.S.) and 220 (Europe).  No one converter will plug in at your hotel room in Boston and Brussels.

When we have data that conforms exclusively to one standard or another, we cannot make up the missing values or "fudge" comparisons. There are no direct flights from Phoenix to Rome.

Introduced in May of 2013, DNA Consultants' new method for giving customers matches to countries of Europe where they may have ancestry underwent some enhancements to overcome these problems as of August 15 of 2014.

All full DNA Fingerprint reports now specify European results in several different ways, while the $99 EURO report will only give one result (no. 3, ENFSI).

Result

Basis

Possible Matches

1.

Top 50 world populations out of 450 all together

9 Core CoDIS Markers

181 European populations, e.g. Russia - Pskov (n=62)

2.

Top 20 extended EURO populations without other world populations

10 ENFSI standard markers derived from all published sources

71 populations, e.g., Romania - Dobruja (n = 569)

3.

Top 10 core European countries belonging to European Union*

10 ENFSI standard markers actually reported by ENFSI

24 populations, e.g. England/Wales (n = 437)

4.

Top 10 Megapopulations out of 22

9 Core CoDIS Markers

10 European megapopulations, e.g. Mediterranean European

5.

Map of World Ancestry

9 Core CoDIS Markers

Intensity of green shows strength of match, as before

6.

Certificate of Testing

Combined methods

Your ENFSI matches appear in right column, your megapops in left

7.

Ancestry Certificate

Your Personalized Report

Any population, megapopulation or ethnic marker can be displayed

As for special certificates ordered after you get your report, the match you specify must appear in the top world, European or ethnic panel results in your personal ancestry analysis. If it does, it will be reproduced exactly according to the nomenclature adopted from the original study, e.g. Italian, Filipino, Sub-Saharan African, East Asian. Customers may choose between American Indian or Native American, whichever they prefer. Only one population match per certificate! Available in hard copy exclusively.

(*) Note:  Nineteen of the European Union's 27 countries are included in official ENFSI data:

Austria+

Belgium+

Switzerland+

Czech Republic+

Germany+

Denmark

Estonia

Spain+

Finland

France/Lille+

France/Toulouse+

Croatia+

Ireland

North Ireland

Italy+

Netherlands+

Norway+

Poland+

Portugal+

Sweden+

Slovenia+

England/Wales+

Scotland/Dundee+

Scotland/Glasgow+

Those countries marked with a + are also included in our world data on a different basis (CoDIS).

Omitted from official ENFSI calculations either because they have not been sampled by ENFSI itself or are not in the European Union are:

Albania

Belarusia

Bosnia

Bulgaria

Cyprus

Greece

Hungary

Kosovo

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Macedonia

Romania

Russia

Serbia

Slovakia

Ukraine

Almost all of these countries are covered in our world data (using the CoDIS standard). For instance, Greek - Northern (n = 318) or Lithuania - Vilnius (n=140).

Included with ENFSI populations are two countries that are not members of the European Union:

Norway

Switzerland

Between one dataset or another, a customer can find at least one match for any country on the modern map of Europe they might have exotic ancestry in, even Cyprus, Malta, Iceland and Turkey, which are often grouped with Europe. Bulgaria and Ukraine, for which no data at all are available, are estimated by neighboring populations across their borders.

Remember, multiple matches do not mean multiple ancestry! For instance, if you get 10 matches to Spanish/Portuguese, that does not necessarily mean you have 10 times the amount of that ancestry than if you received only one match.

The converse is also true. Many Americans are looking for confirmation of Irish ancestry, but there are only two sets of data for Ireland:  Ireland (n=300) and Northern Ireland (n=207). Setting aside neighboring populations like Scotland/Glasgow (n=494) and England/Wales (n=437), your Irishman or Irishwoman thus only gets two "lottery tickets" to enter in the Irish Sweepstakes. If Ireland or Northern Ireland comes up, its significance is not diminished by its sole appearance since there are only two possibilities available.

We wish you didn't have to carry an electrical adapter kit for European travel, but as stated above, we can't change the conventions any more than we can change the time zones. 

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The China Wire - Part Three

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Rare Chinese Allele Found Among Southwestern U.S. Hispanics and North Mexican Indians

Like about 5 percent of North Americans, Francesca Serrano was adopted and never knew her birth parents. Wishing to find out her ancestry, she took our DNA Fingerprint Plus, an autosomal test based on an analysis of STR frequencies that can suggest overall ancestry matches to world populations. The caseworker who prepared her report was amazed at all the apparent Chinese ancestry mixed with Hispanic and Native American.

Photo:  A Chinese woman.

After delivering the report recently, we nervously interviewed Serrano, who works in an East Coast DNA diagnostic center. She explained that the results made perfect sense. She grew up in Colima, Mexico, and people often asked her, "Do you have any Asian going on in you?"

Taking a closer look at her 16-locus STR profile, we noticed several unusual alleles. We will focus on one of them in this report, a value of 9 at D16S539. Admittedly, this is only one tiny ray of light into the genomic inheritance of a person, but geneticists have proved the utility of examining single STRs like this.

Sioux Need Not Apply

A rather sensational article—if genetics literature can ever be considered crowd-inciting—appeared in 2007, when Kari Schroeder and her team at the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, showed that a value of 9 at D9S1120 cropped up in sample profiles of 35.4% of North and South American Indians as well as "West Beringians." This marker was later dubbed a "private allele" shared by the members of a small hunting party that crossed the Bering Land Bridge and spread through the Americas many, many moons ago (the "single entry" theory).

STRs mutate almost as slowly as mitochondrial DNA and can therefore be useful markers for deep ancestry (see our post, "Evolution and Ancestry:  DNA Mutation Rates," October 23, 2012). One must be careful, however, not to make too much of them. For instance, the Sioux and Jemez reported 0.0% frequency of the touted allele (see Schroeder et al., "Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas," Mol. Biol. Evol. 26/5 [2009] 1003), but that doesn't make them any less Indian than the others. Try telling any Lakota Sioux he is less Indian than the others.

In Hispanic people in the American Southwest, our allele (which we will call for the sake of convenience "the Serrano allele") occurs in only 8% percent of the population. It is not even among the most common possible numbers on that location; a repeat of 11 occurs in 31%.

Population

 

% =9

Southwestern Hispanics

7.9

California Hispanics

10.3

Arizona Hispanics

11.1

Navajos

16.8

Apaches

9.9

Chihuahua

11.2

Huichol Indians Chiapas

7.5

El Salvador

12.8



























 
Analysis and Conclusion
From these figures, we get a general picture of the Serrano allele running relatively high, though still a minority report, in Western Hispanics, Mexicans and Indians. It is highest in the Navajos (who are rumored to have migrated from Chinese Turkistan in historical times). It is about the same in Arizona Hispanics as Mexicans from Chihuahua. We have no data from Sonora or Sinaloa, unfortunately.

Although present at an average frequency of about 12% in American Indian populations, the Serrano allele reaches its highest level among the Salishan Indians of British Columbia, where it is 30%. In neighboring regions of Canada, indigenous people have only about 8% of it (Saskatchewan aboriginals). 

Everything comes from somewhere, and the Serrano allele in terms of human history is no exception. Its frequency is low or entirely absent in European populations and extremely high in East Asian, where it is highest among the Atayal tribe of Taiwanese aborigines (52%). It is also elevated among the Evenks (one of Russia's native peoples), the Japanese, Pacific Islanders and Koreans. It is about the same level in Central, North, Chaozhou, Sichuan, Cantonese and Singapore Chinese populations, about 25%.

Like all alleles it is found in Africa, the ultimate source of all present-day humans, in modest amounts, but in even scarcer quantities in all the populations between there and North Asia. It enjoyed an enormous expansion in China.

It averages only 2.4% in all Native Americans, showing it is an extremely rare allele for American Indians to have overall. 

Serrano's No. 1 match on the basis of her entire profile (13 loci) is Chinese Hui - Ningxia. In this homeland of the Tangut people which once formed part of the Xia Xian Empire, the value of 9 on this marker is modal, with a frequency of 30%. 

What are we to make of a single allele that is relatively rare in Native Americans, even rarer in European, Middle Eastern and other populations, but modal in some Chinese populations, with an apparent ancient center of diffusion in Taiwan? We conclude that it just may be a vestige of Asian DNA from China's ancient and medieval periods of history, not deep history tracing back to Siberia.

In our next post we will see if any confirmatory evidence comes from other avenues of investigation.

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The China Wire - Part Two

Friday, August 08, 2014

Buddhist Priests in Ancient Arizona



Monument on northeast boundary of the Ironwood National Forest in the Samaniego Hills.


By and large, the genetics literature on American Indians has been confined to small, scattered samples gleaned from modern groups. This morass of information is vast, growing, and inconclusive.

Attempting to present the "peopling of the Americas" from such a reductive approach is like playing a game of Solitaire with important cards missing.

One Brazilian geneticist completely despaired of any solution as long ago as 2002. Francisco Salzano wrote in an article titled "Molecular Variability in Amerindians:  Widespread but Uneven Information, that "the present trend of favoring essentially applied research suggests that the situation will not basically improve in the future" (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 74, no. 2, p. 1).

It hasn't, of course. We shall not attempt here anything like a synthesis of the subject, although a later installment in this series will tackle the autosomal DNA story. Only alternative approaches such as alu insertions, human lymphocyte antigens and autosomal DNA can possibly cut the Gordian knot.

Turning from DNA to Actual History
In the meantime, let us continue the thread begun with "Did the Chinese Settle in Northwest Mexico and the American Southwest" (blog post, July 30, 2014).  In Part One, we saw that the Mexicans and Chinese retain memories of Chinese settlement in the New World if most Americans do not.

The classic historical reference is a Chinese text about the Land of Fusang, an account redacted in the 14th century describing events going back to the fifth century. It occurs in the 41st Book of Chüan (or Kuen 327) in the 230th volume of the Great Chinese Encyclopedia, a vast imperial compilation known simply as The Chinese Classics. Joseph de Guignes, a learned French Orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist, brought it to the attention of the Western world in 1761.

De Guignes identified the original narrator as Hwui Shen (or Hui Shen), a Buddhist priest from Kabul (Afghanistan, then part of India), who visited ancient Mexico with four or five other priests in 458 C.E. Hui Shen appeared before the Chinese emperor in 499 and gave an exact account of his travels, surviving in several versions (see the summary in Henriette Mertz, Pale Ink, pp. 21-22).  

De Guignes' report on the Chinese in the Americas appeared in the papers of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Royal Society of London and confounded Europe.  Savants over the next two hundred years—Julius Klaproth (1831), Dominique Alexandre Godron, Joseph Needham—confirmed Hui Shen's place in history. In 1885, Edward P. Vining published the provocatively but succinctly titled Inglorious Columbus: or, Evidence that Hwui Shen and a Party of Buddhist Priests from Afghanistan Discovered America (see extensive bibliog. in Stan Steiner, Fusang, p. 240-44).

If Buddhist priests were living in sixth century Arizona, skeptics may charge, they can't have left much proof of their existence. Their landfall in the Americas was no doubt accidental. They left no enduring mark. It's as if it never happened. In fact, it probably did not happen. Hui Shen's story is a charming fairy tale, not a historical account.

Mesoamerican Religious Practices
To the contrary, there are numerous signs of a deep and lasting Asiatic imprint in Mexico. No less an authority than Hubert Howe Bancroft devotes many pages to the bewilderingly diverse forms of religion among ancient Mexican Indians. Of those in Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango, he writes:  "They had innumerable private idols, penates of all possible and impossible figures, some being stone, shaped by nature only" (Native Races, vol. 3, Myths and Languages, San Francisco, 1882, p. 179).

 

 Lingams and cross at San Xavier.

He notes that some Western Mexican tribes worshipped a black stone like the Kaaba in Mecca, and that Quetzalcoatl and other divinities were connected with stone-worship (p. 281). One Americanist "even explains the meaning of the name Quetzalcoatl despite the usual definition as 'twin of a precious stone.'"

If all this sounds like lingam worship, perhaps it is. In our rambles through the Ironwoods National Forest we were surprised to discover an altar we dubbed Bighead in a hidden cove (see photo). When we questioned a Papago elder he recognized the place immediately and said it was one of his people's most sacred shrines. 

The closest member of the Tohono O'odham Nation, as the Papagos are now known, lives in Tucson, thirty miles away, but certain religious leaders still know this now-empty territory like the back of their hand.

We were not completely shocked after this, when we visited the Mission of San Xavier del Bac, which serves as the parish church for the Papagos living around Tucson.There we photographed a collection of Shaivistic lingams placed beneath the giant Christian cross. The heirs of the Hohokam may have adopted the creed of the Jesuits and Franciscans but apparently they cling to some of their old forms of worship.

Some Possible Echoes in Place-Names
Mertz proposes that the very word Sinaloa (in Nahuatl Zineloque) is derived from Chinelos, "foreigners." She draws attention to the Huichol Indians, who live around Colima, a possible origin point according to a consensus of archeologists for the early Hohokam. These carriers of Arizona's first advanced native culture arrived around 400 C.E. from the south with a fully formed society, featuring, among other things, distinctive pottery, copper bells, cremation practices and irrigation knowledge.

"The religious nature of the Huichol," writes Mertz, "and their attendant religious ceremonies, had strong Buddhist characteristics . . . Some Huicholes bore such striking resemblance to the Chinese that the Mexicans called them 'Chinos'" (p. 73).

Mertz speculates that certain place-names in the Sonoran Desert and West Mexico coast commemorate Asian colonies. The name of Picacho, the hat-shaped landmark that dominates the barren lands between Phoenix and Tucson, may derive from Pi-k'iu (compare Sanskrit Bhiksu "mendicant priest").

Sacaton, an important Hohokam town, seems to bear the name of the Buddha's clan—Saka or Sakya. Prince Siddhartha Shakya (5th century BCE) was the founder of Buddhism and came to be known as Gautama Buddha. Related, according to Mertz, are the names Zacatecas and Zacatlan.

Well, that is all fine and dandy, you may say, vague legends and twisted linguistic analogies. Where's the hard evidence?

An Unusual Petroglyph
Not far from Picacho Peak and Tucson are the Santa Catalina Mountains, and on the Golden Ranch north of the Catalina State Park are the San Ysidro Ruins. Here is located what we suggest is as hard a piece of evidence as you could hope to find. It is a petroglyph of the Buddha meditating in a lotus position. Unmistakable, the iconic figure appears on a rock panel over older, conventional fertility figures and hunting scenes and can be dated to about 1500 years ago (see photo).

If Buddhist priests came to the Hohokam heartland long ago, as recounted in the Chinese Classics, they were hardly idle travelers or adventurers. They were self-described missionaries with a serious purpose. They expected to find people they could communicate with and convert. That the Hohokam and their parent populations already included a sizable Asiatic element is a given.

Asian residents, not mere visitors, are frankly implied in a Chinese poem quoted by Steiner:

Where the sun rises

In the land of Fu Sang

There is my home.

Seeking fame and riches

I came to the land

Of the eternal flowers.

So the "Land of the Eternal Flowers," Fusang, is West Mexico, from Arizona, California and Sonora to Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Michoacán. Hwui Chen went back to the Orient, but obviously other compatriots of his stayed and called America home. 

In Nayarit, which appears to be the center of Chinese and Buddhist influence, Bancroft reports that the ancient inhabitants conceived of heaven or paradise as filled with ministering healers "with shaved heads." After death, he writes, the good Indians "went to a place . . . where they lived under the care of men with shaved heads" (p. 529). They also believed in transmigration of souls (p. 529).

Being for the most part celibate, the men with the shaved heads cannot have left progeny, so it would be fruitless to look for their legacy in the DNA record. But that is not the case for the Chinese merchant who emigrated to Fusang to seek fame and riches. Moreover, Chinese junks were capable of transporting an entire colony numbering in the thousands, including women.

Could there be an autosomal trace of gene flow from the East, if not a Y chromosome or mitochondrial trail? Our next post will examine this possibility.


Comments

Donovan commented on 22-Sep-2014 10:12 PM

The Native Americans are the Hebrew Peleg branch. They picked up religious customs while migrating to the Americas. A few of their cousins the Chinese and other various Shemitic Island people may have joined them or assisted them in their Journey to the New World.

Robert Bridgford commented on 06-Oct-2014 02:59 PM

I believe the slanted-eyed giants of which my Cherokee ancestors speak of had been of China; "came from, ...returned to the west,...", the Priests who lead the mound-building of the Mississippi "period," likely, from my finds of connections, being that both the mound builders, & giants, had bred with the Cherokee people, indeed were those venturing to Fusang, (America). I find great truth for a man of the government on Facebook discredited, with GREAT persistence, such had been NOT so. Any information would be appreciated very much.


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