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Understanding DNA Tests and Our Science


An Overview of DNA Testing
Which Test is Right For Me?
FAQs about Various Tests
Our Experts
Our Laboratories
Glossary
Peoples of the World (photo album)
Books for Sale on Site
Videos about DNA Testing
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
DNA Links


Toward a Genetic Profile of Melungeons in Southern Appalachia Toward a Genetic Profile of Melungeons in Southern Appalachia (9638 KB)

Copyright © Appalachian State University. Used with permission.

New-Generation Autosomal Ancestry Markers: Rare Genes from History pdf of presentation at Family History Expos, Mesa, AZ, Jan. 18-19, 2013

The Science of DNA (brief video, 1:25)



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Watch Brief Interview on Autosomal DNA from St. George, Utah Family History Expo.

DNA Consultants Mentioned in American Marketing Association case study (Technical, Advanced Level)

Altruistic Economics and Consumer Cooperatives in the DNA Marketspace

Good Article on Autosomal DNA Testing (Beginner's Level)

Autosomal DNA Testing and Your Genealogy, by Tony Bandy Autosomal DNA Testing and Your Genealogy, by Tony Bandy (353 KB)


An Overview of DNA Testing for Genealogy

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the biological material that contains the blueprint and instructions for all function and development of living organisms.  By examining and analyzing DNA, we can compare your genes to those of millions of people all over the planet.  DNA analysis can be used for many purposes; we use it to provide genealogical information about your ancestry.

The DNA Fingerprint Test will analyze your DNA sample against 16 standard STR markers, also called CODIS markers. (CODIS stands for Combined DNA Index System, and it probably sounds familiar if you watch any of television’s popular procedural crime shows like CSI.)  You can learn more about CODIS at the FBI website.

CODIS markers are also used in relationship testing such as paternity tests. See what samples can be used.

Other tests look for different markers in your DNA. The Premium Male determines 43 marker values or alleles in your Y chromosome (provided you are a male). The Premium Female establishes the mutations in two control regions of the mitochondrial DNA passed to you by your mother. Learn more about Male, Female and Combo tests. 

Which Test is Right For Me?

In the past, using DNA to research one’s ancestry was dependent on which gender of relative was available to test, and then the results were confined to just the “outside” male-male or female-female lines. Today, there are other options, including the ability to test one’s entire genome, regardless of gender. Genome-wide testing with the DNA Fingerprint Test reflects your entire ancestry.

There are many tests available but which one to take will depend on your particular research goals. Take our DNA Wizard Quiz to learn which products are right for you.

How It Works:  Taking a DNA Test (brief introductory video, 0:58)


FAQs about Various Tests

General FAQs
FAQs about the DNA Fingerprint Plus
About the DNA Fingerprint Test

Neanderthal Q&As

Our Experts

The geneticists at our laboratories are some of the best in the world. But, we don’t stop at the list of numbers produced by the lab work.

Our staff members are degreed professionals in history, philology and the social sciences, and they can translate your number sets into a meaningful historical story, based on extensive knowledge of world history, population studies and genealogy sources. Your DNA analysis will be customized for your personal research goals. This creates a superior ancestry research experience – with a report that you can actually read and understand.

 

About Our Laboratories




We rely on Chromosomal Laboratories of Phoenix for processing of DNA profiles for our autosomal products, including the DNA Fingerprint Test and DNA Fingerprint Plus.    

Glossary

Want to know more about any of the terms you have seen on our site? Visit our glossary of genetic definitions, for more information about the science behind genetic testing, in language you can understand.

Peoples of the World

Watch a presentation with the faces of 140 people from around the world.
Purchase the book for your own!

Bookstore

References and Suggestions for Further Reading

African DNA and 'Out of Africa'

Asian DNA

Jewish History and Genetics

Linkage Disequilibrium

Melungeon

mtDNA

Native American DNA

Popular Books and Articles on DNA and History, including Famous Cases

Populations

Race and Ethnicity

Technical Literature on Genotyping, including atDNA and Forensic Literature

Surname Studies

Reference Key to atDNA Matches

Validation Study for atDNA

Toward a Sephardic Haplogroup Profile in the New World

By Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Donald N. Panther-Yates

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Yates & Hirschman, "DNA Haplotyping and Diversity"

Donald N. Yates and Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman, "DNA Haplotyping and persity: An Anthropogenealogical Method for Researching Lineages and Family Ethnicity." Paper published in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, Los Angeles, Calif., July 6-9, 2004. PURCHASE for $3.70 (pdf file) or $7.40 (bound offprint).

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World Migration Map (c) DNA Consultants 2008


World Migration Map 2

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup migrations. Courtesy The New York Times.